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Anthropology 2 Walsh

by: Julie Park

Anthropology 2 Walsh Anthropology 2

Julie Park
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Anthropology 2 Walsh Lecture notes, essay questions for midterm/final outlined, key terms defined
Anthropology 2
Walsh Casey
Class Notes




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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Park on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 2 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Walsh Casey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Anthropology 2 in Cultural Anthropology at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
KEY CONCEPTS ANTH 2 - FALL 2015 From: Guest, Kenneth. 2014. Cultural Anthropology The following key terms from the textbook should be used to answer the midterm and final questions. MIDTERM: CHAPTER 1 ethnocentrism participant observation flexible accumulation ethnographic fieldwork ethnology increasing migration four-field approach globalization uneven development holism time-space compression climate change CHAPTER 2 culture symbol power enculturation cultural relativism stratification norms unilineal evolution hegemony values historical particularism agency CHAPTER 3 participant observation qualitative data etic reflexivity key informant informed consent quantitative data emic anonymity CHAPTER 5 theory of evolution natural selection developmental adaptation creationism species acclimatization mutation genetic adaptation cultural adaptation CHAPTER 6 race phenotype hypodescent racism colonialism eugenics genotype white supremacy racialization CHAPTER 7 ethnicity state nation assimilation nation-state nationalism multiculturalism CHAPTER 11 class potlatch income egalitarian society means of production wealth reciprocity prestige caste ranked society social mobility achieved status redistribution social reproduction ascribed status 1 FINAL: CHAPTER 8 sex transgender gender ideology gender gender stratification gender violence intersexual gender stereotype CHAPTER 9 heterosexuality homosexuality sexual violence asexuality bisexuality sex tourism CHAPTER 10 nuclear family marriage bridewealth descent group exogamy dowry lineage endogamy CHAPTER 12 food foragers industrial agriculture dependency theory pastoralism leveling mechanism neocolonialism horticulture Industrial Revolution underdevelopment slash and burn modernization theories neoliberalism agriculture development commodity chain CHAPTER 13 pushes and pulls remittance internal migration bridges and barriers social capital transnationalism chain migration refugee CHAPTER 14 band state militarization tribe civil society social movement chiefdom organization framing process CHAPTER 15 religion sacred profane ritual liminality magic 2 1. Agriculture: - Thesis: anthropologists study agriculture in aspect to how much it impacts people’s lifestyles. - water temples in bali - life centers around water - affected how the society formed; water temples were their survival source; people had to come together to set irrigation schedules and cropping schedules; meeting for irrigation structure, they became a society; - paying the price - dependent on agriculture so children don’t get education - the pesticides mess with their health - gender: women began to involve themselves into agriculture and gained more control as they gained income too; 2. Political/Social: Discuss anthropological perspectives on social and political organization. - Thesis: Anthropologists believe political and social structures flexibly adjust to best fit their living conditions - 1. Elman Service classified political systems into four: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states, which he believed all developed through natural evolutionary progression from simple to complex. A band is a small, kinship based group where the majority makes the decision and leadership is given based on skill and knowledge. Tribes have leaders who build their power from personal achievements. Chiefdoms build social relations around kinship networks and lineages, as bands and tribes generally do. States gain ultimate authority through the imagination and experiences of people. - 2. Micronesians: A prominent example of a region with adaptive social and political structure is Micronesia, an archipelago of thousands of small islands. They developed an intricate structure that allowed them to survive and recover from the common storms and droughts they face. Their system authorizes the survivors of one island to travel to other islands to find support. Because they move from island to island, they have a dual system where they belong to a local lineage and a dispersed clan. From this, each individual is a part of two different systems of government. - 3. the Nuers built their political structure on patrilineal kinship structures of clans and lineages. Because the social networks centered around kinship and cattle, there were no individual in control. Gough believed that the conflicts Nuer faced with resisting British occupation and other outside factors, the emphasis on kinship grew. The lineages are a major structural factor for political order and they do not have a political, authoritative figure in a tribe. 3. Religion: How is religion connected to other aspects of human society and history? - Thesis: Depending on the ideologies of a religion, the history and human society can be altered in drastic ways, in which it either greatly benefit or hinder people’s living conditions. - marx - burmese monks - harris-hindu - cultural materialism 4. Liberalism/Neoliberalism: What is liberalism and what is neoliberalism? - Liberalism is believed to have originated from the ideologies of the Enlightenment in Europe. In 1970s, the ideas of liberalism built up to neoliberalism to match up to the growing globalization. - the ideology of liberalism focuses on individual liberty, equality, and capitalism. - the United Nations demonstrated a perfect example of liberalism through the creation of Universal Declaration of Human rights, which gave everyone equality and freedom. It states that all human beings are born free and equal. - keynes believed that government intervention was necessary to increase employment and therefore, President Roosevelt applied it to his new deal. however, as the great recession hit, economic liberalism was revived which led to neoliberalism. Neoliberalism focused on the free market as the controlling factor. - for example, the water management in Mexico was once run by the government but eventually given to a water company. water switched from a human right to a commodity as the water company made the people pay for it. this shows neoliberal ideology because now the market has full control over the distribution of water. the market wanted to make people decrease the demand of water because there was limited supply and therefore, arranged both the programa cultura de agua and supergotico which taught kids how to conserve water. they targeted the children because they were the future population. - paying the price is also an example because the government didn’t care for the people. eventually, the schools for children of migrant workers were closed and most of them couldn’t go due to working hours. the immigrants were controlled by the market. for example, let tran, the production manager, regulated who worked and the conditions of the workers. also, mexico didn’t do anything to stop the use of pesticides, unlike other countries where it was prohibited. mexico didn’t ban it therefore the children were harmed and needed medical care, but received none because the country didn’t offer the right medication. 5. gender, sex, nature and nurtureAlthough the basis of the idea that sex and nature go hand in hand because both are biological concepts and gender and nurture are both cultural concepts are still alive, the concepts are blurred in today’s society. - in the example of caster semenya, anthropologists can explore how society shapes gender as opposed to the biological facts of sex. Semenya was a 800- meter race gold medalist who lost her medal and prize money due to a public controversy. It all started when rumors stated that she was not a woman due to her voice, physique, and running ability. This shows the social perspective of females in the sense that if a woman had a firmly built physique and an astonishing ability to run, their gender is questioned for the qualities she posses are believed to only pertain to males. although she was born and grew up as a female, she is questioned to whether she was biologically neither a female or male. - the hijra culture - in addition, the frog and atrazine case study shows that the sex of a frog can change upon exposure to the pesticide, atrazine. one in 10 male frogs turn into females and of the males that turn into females, most can mate with a male frog. Normally, such biological factors would have strictly correlated with nature, by having human interference, the sexes too can be altered. - 5 1 5 1 Anthropology 2 2. bureaucracies 3. new concepts: population, curve, norm G. Encyclopedic Stats> Anthro 1. statistics became enumerative 2. encyclopedic aspects became anthropology and geography 3. peoples/cultures, places, things H. Case Study: Antonio Garcia Cubas 1. 1876: The Republic of Mexico 2. ENCYCLOPEDIC I. Garcias Cubas 1. 1893: Mexico: Its Trade, Industry and Resources 2. ENUMERATIVE J. Anthropologist Manuel Gamio 1. Mexican Revolution (1911-1920) 2. Criticized enumerative statistics a) not enough about cultural “needs and aspirations” 3. Called for encyclopedic statistics a) “general, useful” knowledge Movie Notes (babakiueria): Anthropology 2 10/12/15 • Environmental Anthropology: • studies human relationship with nature across cultures and time • humans are a part of nature/environment but we are also distinct • focus on beliefs, behaviors, landscapes, material culture, media, literature, discourse, and language • Natural Resources and Environment • structure human social organization and culture • water • seasonality • temperature • animals, wild, and domesticated • building materials • topography • disease • Modes of Livelihood (MoL): adaption for acquiring food in specific environmental conditions • foraging • horticulture • pastoralism •agriculture • industrialism • MoL has a structuring effect on the society • Foragers: the Inuit and San people • two different in dramatically different Environments • Similarities • social organization (bands) • reciprocity and egalitarianism • Differences • gender equality • Taboos and environmental regulation • curupira • Theories of Human-Environment Interaction • determinism: the environment sets limits on humans • possibilism: the environment structures behaviors and cultures to some extent, but does not produce inevitable results • humans use culture to adapt, innovate, and shape the environment to suit their needs • have we overcome our environment through technology? • Perceptions of Nature • Nature-Culture dichotomy: the conceptual separation between nature and human culture in many Western Societies • Nature: natural, bio-physical • external: plants, trees, animals, insects, weather • internal (human nature): desire, instinct, hunger, violence Anthropology 2 • Culture: social, related to humans • external: cities, civilization, fine art • internal: self control, denial of desire, demonstration on knowledge • clothing, hair • Opposed Western views of Humanity in Relation to Nature • Nature is a pure; humans can exist in harmony with nature as a balanced system • “a war against ill” • humans in nature are like animals, w/o social rules, we regress to savages • Amazon Basin • covers 2.7 million square miles • lower 48 USA = 3.1 M • Why Deforestation • structural factors favor deforestation • policies • prices • inequality • roads • Acre, Brazil • arrival of ranches and colonists (’70-80s) • Chico Mendes and the Rubber Tapper Movement • Humans and Environment • humans use culture (i.e. technology) to adapt to their environment and overcome environmental constraints the way that humans interact with the environment/nature/ • nonhumans results in beliefs that facilitate or reinforce behaviors • the way we think about nature reflects a deep history of western thought and changes • Environmental anthropology and environmental problems • studies behaviors, patterns, and beliefs, contribution to a better understanding of cultures and potential solutions to environmental problems • contemporary environmental crisis is the result of more than population, it is related to inequality • • over-consumption • separation from resource base • and ingrained perceptions that are maladaptive Anthropology 2 10/14/15 Evolution, Biology, Society, and Culture • Primates Behavior • Locomotion • Social Organization • Reproduction • Tool Use • “Culture” • Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection • all species are capable of producing offspring faster than the food supply increase (Malthus) • all living things show variations, no two individuals of a species are exactly alike • because more individuals than can survive, there is a struggle for existence. those with favorable variation possess advantage over others (Malthus) • these favorable variations are inherited and tend to be more likely to be passed on to the next generation • over long periods of geologic time (Lyell), these successful variations produce great differences that result in new species • in the process, animals acquire traits that appear functionally well designed for the tasks they carry out (via natural selection) • evolution = descent w/ modification; change through time • natural selection operates on individuals but evolution happens to populations • Modern Synthesis • merging of natural selection • one gene does not equal one phenotype • very few genes have simple outcomes • there is often not a gene for something • genes have meaning in context, within a network • proximate and ultimate explanations • proximate explanations • mechanism or development • examples: physiology, neurobiology, hormones, upbringing • ultimate explanations • function or history • examples: phylogenetic similarity, adaptation • everything has both proximate and ultimate explanations • Naturalistic fallacy • the tendency to equate “natural” or “traditional” with “correct” • just because its natural doesn’t mean its right or good • evolutionary approaches to human behavior and culture • evolutionary psychology • posits that the human brain/mind is the product of natural selection • as such, the mind is adapted to solve recurrent problems that faced our ancestors Anthropology 2 • can use our knowledge about the past to formulate hypotheses about how the mind might work • other than these basic commonalities, different evolutionary psychologists may have widely different hypotheses about the mind • human behavioral ecology • often uses economic models, but with ‘fitness’ as the currency, instead of money • often agnostics about the means of inheritance and adaptation - evolved psychology vs. transmitted culture • often studies hunter-gathers as an analogy for understanding our common hunter-gather past • life history theory: examines how natural selection produces adaptations yielding age related and context-dependent tradeoffs between allocation of available resources to: • primatology • cultural evolution Anthropology 2 Social and Political Organization • the Nuer • environment>livelihood>society/culture • segmentation • Nuer tend to define all social processes and relationships in terms of cattle. their social idiom is a bovine idiom • production • cattle must be kept in dry areas • some agriculture in high areas • fishing in low areas • transhumance • environment/society/culture • sparse settlements, small, separate political groups: segmentation • concrete during rainy months, disperse during the dry months • tribal identities over larger areas • Gluckman- the peace in the feud • the Nuer • segmentation: based in kinship • vengeance groups are male kin • feuding people live together • “they are our enemies; we marry them” • -exogamy produces allegiances • peace is not in the absence of conflict, but rather the organization of conflict Anthropology 2 • Gender and Sexuality • Nature and Nurture • Women and men are different •bodies •activities •biology or culture? •regularities across cultures? • Biology: Sex • biological males and females • women: selective; monogamous •pregnancy is a larger investment for women •women have shorter reproductive life •pregnancy, breastfeeding increases vulnerability • biology is not destiny • Think Twice • sex attributes show a wide diversity •a continuum between “male” and “female” • Intersex •noticed in about 1 in 2000 births • sex changes • where does male end and female begin? • Caster Semenya • IAAF and Sex • “recognized as a male or female in law” • “the Council shall approve Regulations to determine the eligibility for women’s competition of: •A) females who have undergone male to female sex reassignment; •B) females with hyperandrogenism • Gender • “the cultural construction of male and female characteristics” • gender roles • gender stratification • transgender • Ethnology of Gender • men: •heavy work, hunting •warfare •public activities • women: •gathering •childrearing •domestic activities • History of Gender Stratification • foragers have less: •gender inequality •public/private division Anthropology 2 • gender roles • Agriculture: women cut off from production • men control surplus • Public-Private • outside world vs. the home • less in egalitarian societies • more in rank and stratified societies • public activities carry more prestige • tribal leaders, chiefs, kings, office holders • Kinship and Gender Stratification • matrilocal, matrilineal societies • relatively high status for women • patrilocal, patrilineal societies • relatively low status for women


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