Psychology Week 7
Psychology Week 7 PSY 1012-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennica Prophete on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1012-002 at Florida Atlantic University taught by James J. Jakubow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
States of Consciousness (Starts on page 250 in textbook) Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon; it is impossible specify what it is, what it does or why it evolved. Nothing worth reading has ever been written about it. - Stuart Sutherland What is consciousness? ● Awareness can be defined in terms of two parts: awareness and arousal ● The textbook define consciousness awareness to external events and internal sensations including awareness of the self and thoughts about one's experiences; this awareness occurs under the condition of arousal” Definition of Consciousness ● Human consciousness ○ What a person is aware of ○ * Conscious and aware are synonymous ● Awareness ○ Behavioral state that requires language robbery observed ○ If there is no language (spoken, signed or written) there is no sign of HUMAN consciousness ○ What would a person look like if they exhibited behavior but no language? ○ Can you prove someone has no consciousness even if they use language? ● Animal consciousness ○ What an animal is currently aware of ● Awareness ○ Animals don't have human language skills so their measure of consciousness is usually found by testing their accuracy in learning and memory tests ■ Does their behavior change when the environment changes? ■ Do they exhibit memory? ● Consciousness ○ Studied since the start of psychology ○ Frequently tied to unscientific concepts ■ Supernatural explanations (e.g. your soul is what measures your consciousness) ○ Study of consciousness slowly focused on a mixture of language and memory ● Consciousness by other names ○ 1880s: Consciousness ○ 1910s: Awareness ○ 1950s: Attention ○ 1960s: Working memory ○ 1980s: Executive function * William James described the mind as a stream of consciousness ● Levels of awareness (these are “fuzzy” categor xamples on page 253 ○ Higher level consciousness ■ Requires focused attention ■ Controlled processes ○ Lower-level consciousness ■ Daydreaming, little attention required ■ Automatic processes ○ Altered state of consciousness ■ Can be caused by drugs, trauma, fatigue, possibly hypnosis, and sensory deprivation ○ Subconscious awareness ■ Dreaming ■ Can happen while awake ○ No awareness ■ Being anesthetized The idea that everyone has a subconscious that houses “mental conflict” has been abandoned by scientific psychology ○ Internal mental conflict is a Freudian theoretical concept ○ The concept has not gained any scientific support over the past 110 years ● The subconscious is where subliminal messages are supposed to control your behavior ○ This has little scientific back up Sleep and Dreams ● Biological rhythm in sleep ○ 90 minute cycles ■ Each stage of sleep lasts 90-100 minutes and happens several times ○ 24 hour cycles ■ Circadian rhythm ● Sleep occurs on a 24-hour cycle ○ Sleep may start with hypnagogic sensations ■ Perceived mini-dreams ■ Feelings of falling or weightlessness ○ After the hypnagogic sensations sleep enters its five successive stages ■ Stages 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM ■ Stage 1 ● Characterized by theta waves ■ Stage 2 ● Theta waves continue ● Sleep spindles come in ■ Stage 3 & 4 ● Characterized by delta waves ● Often referred to as delta sleep; deepest sleep stage ● Stage 3 has delta waves l ess than 50% of the time ● Stage 4 has delta waves occurri ore than 50% of the time ● Sleep walking occurs during stage 3&4 ■ REM Sleep ● Rapid eye movement sleep associated with dreaming ● When you dream you experience body paralysis ○ You may feel unable to move when first waking up ○ Body paralysis keeps you from acting out your dreams ● Stages 1-4 are non-REM sleep
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