Week 7 Theories of Persuasion
Week 7 Theories of Persuasion CMS 332K
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cimmi Alvarez on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMS 332K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Matthew McGlone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Theories of Persuasion in Communication Studies at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Week 7 Responses to Social Influence Compliance Change attitude or behavior purely to gain reward or avoid punishment Surface change Brief attitude change Identification Change attitude/behavior to be like others we identify with Internalization Short term Change Change attitude/behavior because we persuade ourselves that it’s the correct course of action Long term change Put them in the position to persuade themselves Dissonance- people have to justify to themselves of why they are doing something People persuading themselves Persuasion is the art and science of getting people to do what you want to do because they want to do it Don’t find out which ones we are seeing in the moment. Takes time to know which change of attitude change Norm of Conformity Do as others around you are doing unless you are confident you should do otherwise Consequences of violating: embarrassment, ostracization Labelling: Deviant, weirdo, you’re out there, criminal, rebel, socially inept Asch’s (1951, 1956) Conformity Studies Conformity concession: change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people. Wanted to know how people let the holocaust happened How did Nazi’s get everyone to conform? Identified Conformity concession: group pressure Told participants he wanted to study visual perceptions. Gave them lines and asked which ones were the same as the ones colored red People go around room and would answer it wrong in a clearly obvious way. Everyone except one participant were confederates answering wrong. One version people answered as they saw giving right answers Other version confederates answered wrong Participants answered the question wrong almost a third of the time. Conformity Candid Camera Elevator “study” Enter elevator and everyone facing the back wall wanted to know how people react to this. Conformity and Support Get people to make changes in dramatic ways Unanimous group picking the wrong 2 35% erroneous responses Single supporter 7% erroneous response Conformity is reduced if; Presence of at least one other dissenter Number of confederates is small (n<3) Responses are private (not public) Why do we conform? Gain social acceptance, avoid social embarrassment Interpret ambiguous/ uncertain situations Guide of what to do when we are not certain ourselves Social proof- look to others behaviors as proof of how to act McGlone & Glucksber 1997: Survey Conformity Asked students about textbook costs- survey Signatures on the survey were fake along with their estimates One condition: average suggested about $200 Other condition: Average suggested about $300 When the average was low people’s responses were lower When averages were higher people’s responses were higher The number of signatures 1: not much of an impact more people who filled it out conformed more and a bigger jump from the lower group to the higher group Norm Misperception Individuals privately hold a belief that they mistakenly assume others in their group do not. 3 Misperceptions of Campus Drinking norm How comfortable are you with the alcohol drinking habits of students at this college? How comfortable do you think the average student here is with the alcohol drinking habits at this college? Found People in general thought the typical student was comfortable with it though they were not Problem: Willing to drink more because you think you drink less. Give yourself more leeway to engage in potentially dangerous behavior Bystander Effect Mistake in perception of what people think/believe can lead to dangerous situations Kitty Genovese- ‘60s living in NYC Attack lasted 30 minutes. Attacker left scene 3 times. 37 people saw the attack but no one came to her aid or called the police. Attacked 3 separate times by the same killer 38 people saw or heard her cries for help by the time someone called police, Kitty was dead- the bystander actually stumbled upon her. Why didn’t the witnesses help Ms. Genovese? “I heard her scream and was concerned, but no one else was doing anything so I thought it must not have really been a problem” pluralistic Ignorance: Individuals privately hold a belief (scream=Trouble) but mistakenly believe that others don’t hold the belief because they aren’t acting “I just figured that other people would have called the police before I did.” 4 Diffusion of responsibility: Individuals are less likely to take responsibility for action (or inaction) when others are present. Bystander Effect The presence of others inhibits helping I think no one else is doing anything they must know something I don’t or others are around let them take care of it Smoke-Filled Room Study Invite people in to fill out questionnaire while the room slowly fills with smoke and varied the amount of people in the room. Them by themselves: concerned goes to investigate and gets someone running the study Confederates in the room: ignores the smoke over 20 minutes Studies of Bystander Effects Woman in distress (Latane & Rodin ’77) Woman walking through a crowded place. Grabbed by a man toeing her away and she is showing resistance Under different conditions IV: who are you with? Alone With helpful confederate- intervenes With impassive confederate- doesn’t do anything With a friend DV: Likelihood the participant would intervene Alone: 70% Helpful confederate: 40% - diffusion of responsibility Impassive confederate: 10%- Friend: 70% 5 Epileptic Distress Rate of helping goes down dramatically when people believe others are there even when seeing people having an epileptic seizure. 6
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