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Geog 178

by: Hannah Pankratz
Hannah Pankratz

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Class Notes 10/3
Conservation of Environment
Professor Cyril Wilson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Pankratz on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 178 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Professor Cyril Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Conservation of Environment in Geography at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Geog 178 Notes 10/3 Species Intervention in Biological Communities  Competition- interactions between species, relationship between organisms seeking same resources  All living things have a hierarchy  Organism- a living thing, can be unicellular (prokaryotic) or multicellular (eukaryotic)  protists are prokaryotes, humans, plants, animals, etc are eukaryotes  Species- organisms that can interbreed and reproduce fertile offspring  Population- all members of a species living in a given area at the same time  Community- assemblage of populations of organisms living in the same area at the same time  2 types of competition: Intraspecific- competition among members of the same species  Reducing Intraspecific Competition: 1) Dispersal of young offspring of the year (natal dispersion) 2) Displaying strong territoriality 3) Resource partitioning between generations (young feed in one area, elders feed in another area)  Interspecific- competition between different species  species at center of their tolerance level compete better (physically unfit, very old/very young, sick organisms can’t compete efficiently)  Competition forces organisms and species to shift attention to other resources- minimize competition  Predation- predator feeds directly on another living organism (does not necessarily kill prey)  Predation affects entire life stages for prey and predator life cycles  Organisms develop different specialized food-obtaining mechanisms  Adjustment in and body characteristics that help prey escape and predators more efficiently get prey  Beneficial prey/predator relationships: Praying mantis  predator of garden pests Bt bacteria kills caterpillars  Adjustment of body and behavior characteristics (prey) Cryptic coloration (camouflage) Change appearance to mimic danger (black and yellow)  Predator-mediated competition- regulation of a superior competitor’s population by a predator, allowing a weaker competitor to survive (mediator is highest in hierarchy)  Superior competitor increases population  Predator increases hunting pressure on superior competitor  Superior competitor’s population reduces, weaker competitor can better compete and increase population  Knowledge predator’s behavior beneficial for ecosystem planning and management  Symbiosis- two or more species having a close ecological relationship, fates of all species are linked  Mutualism- both organisms benefit from the relationship (lichens- fungus and algae)  Commensalism- one organism benefits from the relationship and the other does not, neither are hurt (barnacle attached to whale’s back)  Parasitism- one organism benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other organism (mosquito bites)  Competition happens when no organisms benefit, and both are impacted negatively  Keystone species- species that has extraordinary influence on the well-being of other species (prairie dogs, ants, predatory starfish, fig trees, gopher tortoise)  Home may serve as habitat for other species, important in ecosystem management  Resilience- ability to recover from disaster/disturbance  Healthy ecosystems can bounce back; unhealthy ecosystems may not be able to repair themselves  Constancy- lack of fluctuation sin composition and function  Inertia- resistance to disturbance  Renewal- ability to repair after disturbance  More complex ecosystems (coral reefs) are more stable and more resilient to disturbance


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