Geog 178 GEOG 178
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Pankratz on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 178 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Professor Cyril Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Conservation of Environment in Geography at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Geog 178 Notes 10/3 Species Intervention in Biological Communities Competition- interactions between species, relationship between organisms seeking same resources All living things have a hierarchy Organism- a living thing, can be unicellular (prokaryotic) or multicellular (eukaryotic) protists are prokaryotes, humans, plants, animals, etc are eukaryotes Species- organisms that can interbreed and reproduce fertile offspring Population- all members of a species living in a given area at the same time Community- assemblage of populations of organisms living in the same area at the same time 2 types of competition: Intraspecific- competition among members of the same species Reducing Intraspecific Competition: 1) Dispersal of young offspring of the year (natal dispersion) 2) Displaying strong territoriality 3) Resource partitioning between generations (young feed in one area, elders feed in another area) Interspecific- competition between different species species at center of their tolerance level compete better (physically unfit, very old/very young, sick organisms can’t compete efficiently) Competition forces organisms and species to shift attention to other resources- minimize competition Predation- predator feeds directly on another living organism (does not necessarily kill prey) Predation affects entire life stages for prey and predator life cycles Organisms develop different specialized food-obtaining mechanisms Adjustment in and body characteristics that help prey escape and predators more efficiently get prey Beneficial prey/predator relationships: Praying mantis predator of garden pests Bt bacteria kills caterpillars Adjustment of body and behavior characteristics (prey) Cryptic coloration (camouflage) Change appearance to mimic danger (black and yellow) Predator-mediated competition- regulation of a superior competitor’s population by a predator, allowing a weaker competitor to survive (mediator is highest in hierarchy) Superior competitor increases population Predator increases hunting pressure on superior competitor Superior competitor’s population reduces, weaker competitor can better compete and increase population Knowledge predator’s behavior beneficial for ecosystem planning and management Symbiosis- two or more species having a close ecological relationship, fates of all species are linked Mutualism- both organisms benefit from the relationship (lichens- fungus and algae) Commensalism- one organism benefits from the relationship and the other does not, neither are hurt (barnacle attached to whale’s back) Parasitism- one organism benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other organism (mosquito bites) Competition happens when no organisms benefit, and both are impacted negatively Keystone species- species that has extraordinary influence on the well-being of other species (prairie dogs, ants, predatory starfish, fig trees, gopher tortoise) Home may serve as habitat for other species, important in ecosystem management Resilience- ability to recover from disaster/disturbance Healthy ecosystems can bounce back; unhealthy ecosystems may not be able to repair themselves Constancy- lack of fluctuation sin composition and function Inertia- resistance to disturbance Renewal- ability to repair after disturbance More complex ecosystems (coral reefs) are more stable and more resilient to disturbance
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