Is 2080C Prof Rapine Week 7 Notes
Is 2080C Prof Rapine Week 7 Notes IS 2080C
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Zuver on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2080C at University of Cincinnati taught by Prof.Rapien in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see IS 2080C in Business at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
IS 2080C Prof Rapien Ween 7 Notes Chapter 4 Cont. 1. Network Applications a. Discovery i. Can be used in an educational setting ii. Search and Metasearch engines 1. To find information quickly and efficiently a. Metasearch- Searches search engines, then presents search engines’ data iii. Material in foreign languages 1. Automatically translated browsers 2. 80% of the world population uses only 10 languages 3. Takes a lot of processing 4. Imperfect, could need back translation to ensure right message is getting across iv. Portals 1. Commercial- Google a. Low switching cost, portals need to draw customers 2. Affinity- Things you like (OneStop) 3. Corporate- OneStop a. Only employees have access to corporate portals 4. Industrywide- b. Communication i. Electronic Mail (E-Mail) ii. Web based chat rooms and call centers 1. Can talk to more people as an employee, from anywhere 2. Through text so no accent barriers (person with an Indian accent can communicate in English) iii. Voice communications over VoIP 1. Essentially allows phone call with only a computer 2. Allows global call center, locally 3. McDonalds call center used for the ordering at drive thru iv. Unified communication 1. Skype + Google Hangout a. Can communicate by voice, video, text all in one place v. Collaboration c. E-learning and Distance Learning i. Advantages 1. Current, dynamic content a. Content can be updated easier 2. Flexible (anytime, anywhere) a. Allows students to have a job and complete class whenever best suits them 3. Learning time is shorter meaning more can be trained 4. Reduced training costs ii. Disadvantages 1. Instructors need new training 2. Instructors don’t know who actually completed work a. They only know which account has the work done, but anybody could have been given access to that account 3. Students must be computer literate a. Students are expected to know how to navigate, not trained before the class 4. Students do not get the face-to-face interaction a. Students are just a name on the screen to a professor d. Telecommuting- Doing work from another location i. Advantages 1. Employees a. Reduced stress, improved work-life balance, improved opportunities for single parents and disabled people 2. Employers a. Increased Productivity, easier to retain skilled employees and improved morale ii. Disadvantages 1. Employees a. Isolation, no visibility or networking opportunities and potentially slower promotions 2. Employers a. Hard to supervise, Information security can become an issue and higher training costs e. Collaboration i. Virtual teams meet online from different locations ii. Workflow: the movement of information as it progresses through sequences of steps that make an organizations work procedures iii. Crowdsourcing: A process in which companies can outsource a task to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call iv. Can be synchronous or asynchronous 1. Synchronous a. Where all members meet at the same time such as this class 2. Asynchronous a. Members meet at different times Chapter 6 Ethics and Privacy 1. Ethical Frameworks a. Famous unethical decisions are present in the cases of Enron, Worldcom, Tyco and more b. Ethics i. systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior c. Frameworks i. Utilitarian Approach 1. States that the ethical action is the one that provides the most “good” and the least harm ii. Rights Approach 1. Maintains that an ethical action is one that best protects the moral rights of the affected parties 2. US court system: Only about the people in the trial iii. Fairness Approach 1. Posits that ethical actions treat all human beings equally 2. If unequal, then fairly based ion some defensible standard iv. Common Goods Approach 1. Highlights the interlocking relationships that underline all societies 2. Compassion for others is the basis for ethical decisions, see all points of views d. Steps for general ethical Framework i. Recognize an ethical issue 1. Does the situation harm anyone, involve a decision between a good or bad alternative, or does it involve more than legal considerations? ii. Get the Facts 1. What is relevant, is there sufficient information to make the decision? 2. Who has a stake in the outcome? Good or bad? a. Have you consulted all relevant parties? iii. Evaluate Alternative Options 1. Look at the 5 Frameworks and choose one iv. Make a Decision and test it 1. Consider all approaches, which option best addresses the situation v. Act and Reflect on the outcome of the decision 1. Implement with greatest care and attention to stakeholders 2. What did you learn from this situation? Use for next time a decision needs to be made 2. Ethics in the Corporate Environment a. Some companies have a code of ethics, but all have an ethical responsibility b. Fundamental Tenets of Ethics i. Responsibility- means that you accept the consequences of your decisions and actions 1. Who is responsible for the actions- the person not the company ii. Accountability-refers to determining who is responsible for actions that were taken 1. The company can be accountable; they could have had you do something on behalf iii. Liability- a legal concept that gives individuals the right to recover the damages done to them by other individuals, organizations, or systems. 1. The company is liable; you get insurance so someone else is liable c. Unethical Vs. Illegal i. Even if it is unethical, it may not be illegal ii. Decisions can be ethical, but also illegal iii. Points/Counterpoints iv. Cybersquatting/brandjacking 1. Cybersquatting: Sitting on a website that someone may want 2. Brandjacking: Illegal- someone acquires or otherwise assumes the online identity of another entity for the purposes of acquiring that person's or business's brand equity. v. 3-d Printing “Controlled Objects” 1. Printing a gun vi. Electronic monitoring and data privacy 1. Not ethical, but legal d. New Ethical Challenges i. More and more data is being collected ii. Moore’s Law 1. Computing power doubles every two years iii. Decreasing Storage costs 1. Ability to store more data iv. Powerful integration capabilities 1. Detailed profiles 3. Privacy a. The US court upholds two standards of privacy i. Right of privacy is not absolute 1. Balanced against needs of society ii. Public’s right to know overrides individual’s right to privacy b. Threats to privacy i. Definitions 1. Privacy- The right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal institutions 2. Information Privacy- The right to determine when, ad to what extent, information about you can be gathered and/or communicated to others ii. Threats 1. Data aggregators a. Companies that collect public and non-public data and integrate them to produce digital dossiers 2. Digital dossiers a. Electronic description of you and your habits 3. Profiling a. Processes of creating digital dossiers i. Looking at situation and observing, “what people have done in the past, they will likely do in the future” b. EX: Sexual Predator Map 4. Electronic surveillance a. ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union)- Electronic surveillance is rapidly increasing i. Tracking of people‘s activities, online or offline, with the aid of computers ii. 75% of employers conduct e-surveillance iii. URL filtering: what websites you visit b. Emerging technologies increase monitoring of human activities i. Technologies: Webcams (toll road maps), Smartphones: GPS-enabled, Motion Sensor: In store billboards, Geotagging: Auto-tagging pictures based on location, Automatic Facial Recognition: Facebook picture tagging 5. Personal information on databases a. Website accounts that you don’t delete or update b. To whom is that data given or sold? 6. Social Networking Sites a. Terms of services- What are you agreeing to? i. Selling of data? Who can see activity? 7. Privacy codes and policies a. Privacy Policies (or Privacy Codes): an organization’s guidelines for protecting the privacy of its customers, clients, and employees. b. Opt-Out Model of Informed Consent: permits the company to collect personal information until the customer specifically requests that the data not be collected. i. Norm in the US c. Opt-In Model of Informed Consent: Privacy advocates prefer this model, which prohibits an organization from collecting any personal information unless the customer specifically authorizes it. d. Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P): a protocol that automatically communicates privacy policies between an electronic commerce Web site and visitors to that site. P3P enables visitors to determine the types of personal data that can be extracted by the sites they visit. 8. International aspects of privacy a. Regulatory Problems- Companies handle these differently b. Transborder Data flows i. What happens if data gets out of US borders and out of US laws c. EU data protection laws c. Privacy, ethics and IT i. Privacy 1. What info should and individual be required to reveal to others 2. Issues involve collecting, storing and distributing information about individuals ii. Accuracy 1. Who is responsible for errors in information and how should injured parties be compensated? 2. Issues involve the authenticity, fidelity and correctness of information being collected and processed iii. Property 1. Who owns a piece of information? 2. Issues involve the ownership and value of information iv. Accessibility 1. What information does a person or company have the right to obtain, under what conditions? 2. Issues revolve around who should be able to access information and whether a fee should be paid for the access 4. International Aspects of Privacy a. Inconsistent Privacy and security laws across the world b. Trans border Data flow c. European Community Commission d. Safe Harbor