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Book Notes Chapter 1

by: Arya Newberry

Book Notes Chapter 1 SOC 100

Arya Newberry
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These notes are an overview of the chapter 1 important points from the text Schaefer Sociology (11th edition) ISBN: 9781308833194
Introduction to Sociology
C. Broman
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology, sociology, Introd to Soc, intro, soc, broman, Schaefer




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arya Newberry on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at Michigan State University taught by C. Broman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Professor Broman Sociology 101,  Ch. 1Book Notes  15 September 2016 I Sociology: The scientific study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses on how social relationships  influence people’s behavior and how societies develop and change A C. Wright Mills­ The sociological imagination: An awareness of the relationship  between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past 1 Allows us to comprehend the links between our immediate, personal  social settings and the remote, impersonal social world around us and helps to shape us 2 Key element­ the ability to view one’s society as an outsider would,  without personal experiences and cultural biases 3 Allows us to understand broader public issues rather than personal  observations B Sociology and the Social Sciences 1 Sociologists focus on people’s attitudes and behavior and the ways in which people interact and shape society II Sociological Theory  A Theory: A set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior 1 Ex. Emilie Durkheim­ Suicide rates in 1969 were significantly higher in Denmark in comparison to other European countries. Concluded with an explanatory theory  stating suicide rates reflect the extent to which people are/ are not integrated into the group life of  society (marriage, religious group, etc)  a Offered a proven scientific explanation involving  social and economic changes instead of a relation to inherited tendencies or sunspots b Again proven true in Las Vegas­ suicide rate is  double the entirety of the U.S. due to influx in tourists undermining the communal sense  of permanence III The Development of Sociology A Early Thinkers 1 Auguste Comte 1798­1857 a Most influential philosopher of the 1800’s b Believed a theoretical science of society and a  systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society c Coined the term sociology 2 Harriet Martineau 1802­1876 a Offered insightful observations of the customs  and social practices of Britain and the United States b Society in America examined religion, politics,  child rearing, and immigration, giving special attention to social class distinctions,  gender, and race c Emphasized the impact that the economy, law,  trade, health, and population have on social problems d Favored women’s rights, slave emancipation, &  religious tolerance 3 Herbert Spencer 1820­1903 a Not compelled to correct society, simply to  understand it better b Applied Darwin’s concept on evolution of  species to society to explain how they change and evolve over time c “Survival of the Fittest” → People are naturally rich/poor d Suggested that because societies are bound to  change eventually, one need not be critical of present social arrangements or work  actively for social change 4 Emile Durkheim 1858­1917 a Best known for insistence that behavior must be  understood within a larger social context instead of individualistic terms b Main interest­ consequences of work in modern  societies. Stated the growing division of labor in industrial societies led to anomie: the  loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior becomes  ineffective, typically when people lose their sense of purpose and direction i Periods of anomie lead to  suicide from people unable to cope c Shared Comte’s belief that sociology should  provide direction for social change d Advocated creation of social groups between  family and state, like unions 5 Max Weber 1864­1920 a Taught students to employ verstehen (German  for understanding/insight) in their intellectual work b Stated we cannot analyze social behavior by  objective material like used for weight. Must learn subjective meanings people attach to  their actions­ how they view and explain their behavior i Fraternity social hierarchy  c Credited for the ideal type: a construct/ model  for evaluating certain cases 6 Karl Marx 1818­1883 a Durkheim’s thinking about the impact of the  division of labor in industrial societies was related to Marx’s writings & Weber’s concern for a value­free objective society was a direct response to Marx’s deeply held  convictions. All three shared dual interest in abstract philosophical issues and the  concrete reality of everyday life b Emphasized the group identifications and  associations that influence an individual’s place in society i The major focus of  contemporary sociology 7 W. E. B. DuBois 1868­1963 a Encouraged sociologists to view society through  the eyes of those segments of the population that rarely influence decision making, as  well as drawing on scientific principles to study social problems such as those  experienced by Blacks in the United States b Many of his ideas challenged the status quo  which led to the lack of a receptive audience c Helped to found the National Association for the  Advancement of Colored People in 1909 d Coined the term double consciousness to refer to the division of an individual’s identity into two or more social realities 8 Twentieth­Century Developments  a Charles Horton Cooley 1864­1929 i Shared desire of Durkheim,  Weber, and Marx to learn more about society ii Preferred to use the  sociological perspective to look first at smaller units (face­to­face groups such  as families and gangs). Saw them as the people that shape ideals, beliefs,  values, and social nature. b Jane Addams 1860­1935 i Member of the American  Sociological Society and co founded the famous Chicago Hull House ii Main goal of assisting the  underprivileged c Robert Merton 1910­2003 i In 1968 he produced a theory  in which he noted different ways in which people attempt to achieve success in  life. In this view some people may deviate from the socially approved goal of  accumulating material goods or the socially accepted means of achieving that  goal ii Emphasized that sociology  should strive to bring together the macro­level micro­level approaches to the  study of society d Pierre Bourdieu 1930­2002 i Wrote about how capital  (including cultural and social assets) in its many forms sustains individuals and  families from one generation to the next ii Cultural capital refers to  non economic goods, such as family background and education iii Social capital refers to the  collective benefit of social networks IV Major Theoretical Perspectives A Functionalist Perspective: emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are  structured to maintain its stability 1 Sports: almost religious, uses ritual and ceremony to reinforce the  common values of a society: socialization of young people into competition and patriotism,  physical well being, spectators shed tension and aggressive energy in socially accepted way, create community and unity 2 Manifest functions: intended consequences of an aspect of society a Go to college for an education 3 Latent functions: unintended consequence of an aspect of society a Go to college to find spouse 4 Dysfunctions: an element or process of a society that may actually  disrupt the social system or reduce its stability B Conflict Perspective: assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension  between groups over the power or the allocation of resources 1 Sports: reflect and exacerbate many divisions of society, big business in which profits are more important that participant health, false idea that success can be achieved through hard work alone, athlete behavior promotes violence and drugs C The Marxist View: argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society  interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus. Through various forms of conflict, groups will tend to  attain differing amounts of material and nonmaterial resources (e.g. the wealthy vs. the poor). More powerful  groups will tend to use their power in order to retain power and exploit groups with less power. D The Feminist Perspective: sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and  organization, typically focusing on the macro level 1 Sports: Reinforces the roles that men and women play in larger  society, men use illegal drugs and women excessively diet, gender expectations (no women in  NASCAR, etc.), women make less money E Queer Theory: the study of society from the perspective of a broad spectrum of sexual  identities 1 Sports: promotes heterosexuality as only acceptable identity for  athletes F Interactionist Perspective: generalizations of everyday forms of social interaction in  order to explain society as a whole­ George Herbert Mead 1 Sports: heightened parent­child involvement lead to parental  expectation for involvement, build friendship networks that permeate everyday life, teammates  work together regardless of class, race, etc, people are defined by their athletic ability and  reputations 2 (symbolic) Interactionism is a sociological framework in which  human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects such as material things,  actions, relationships, symbols, etc a Nonverbal communication includes gestures,  facial expressions, and postures including dress codes, etc 3 Dramatical approach was popularized by Erving Goffman 1922­ 1982 in which people are seen as theatrical performers, feeling the need to project a certain image  depending on their surroundings 4 Major Sociological Perspective Functionalist Conflict Interactionist View of Society Stable, well integrated Characterized by tension Active in influencing  and struggle between  and affecting everyday  groups social interaction Level of Analysis  Macro Macro Micro, as a way of  Emphasized understanding the larger  macro phenomena Key Concept Manifest functions Inequality Symbols Latent functions  Capitalism Nonverbal com. Dysfunctions Stratification Face­to­Face int. View of the Individual People are socialized to  People are shaped by  People manipulate  perform societal  power, coercion, and  symbols and create their  functions authority  social worlds through  interaction View of Social Order Maintained through  Maintained through  Maintained by shared  cooperation and  force and coercion understanding of  consensus everyday behavior View of Social Change Predictable, reinforcing Change takes place all  Reflected in poeple’s  the time and may have  social positions and com. positive conseq. with others Example Public punishments  Laws reinforce the  People respect laws or  reinforce the social orderpositions of those in  disobey them based on  power their own past  experience Proponents Emile Durkheim Karl Marx George Herbert Mead Talcott Parsons W.E.B. DuBois Charles Horton Cooley Robert Merton Ida Wells­Barnett Erving Goffman V Taking Sociology with You A Applied and Clinical Sociology 1 Applied sociology: the use of the discipline of sociology with the  specific intent of yeling practice applications for human behavior and organizations 2 Clinical sociology: dedicated to facilitating change by altering social  relationships (therapy) or restructuring social institutions 3 Applied and clinical sociology can be contrasted with basic  sociology which seeks a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social  phenomena


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