Book Notes Chapter 1
Book Notes Chapter 1 SOC 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arya Newberry on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at Michigan State University taught by C. Broman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Professor Broman Sociology 101, Ch. 1Book Notes 15 September 2016 I Sociology: The scientific study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses on how social relationships influence people’s behavior and how societies develop and change A C. Wright Mills The sociological imagination: An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past 1 Allows us to comprehend the links between our immediate, personal social settings and the remote, impersonal social world around us and helps to shape us 2 Key element the ability to view one’s society as an outsider would, without personal experiences and cultural biases 3 Allows us to understand broader public issues rather than personal observations B Sociology and the Social Sciences 1 Sociologists focus on people’s attitudes and behavior and the ways in which people interact and shape society II Sociological Theory A Theory: A set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior 1 Ex. Emilie Durkheim Suicide rates in 1969 were significantly higher in Denmark in comparison to other European countries. Concluded with an explanatory theory stating suicide rates reflect the extent to which people are/ are not integrated into the group life of society (marriage, religious group, etc) a Offered a proven scientific explanation involving social and economic changes instead of a relation to inherited tendencies or sunspots b Again proven true in Las Vegas suicide rate is double the entirety of the U.S. due to influx in tourists undermining the communal sense of permanence III The Development of Sociology A Early Thinkers 1 Auguste Comte 17981857 a Most influential philosopher of the 1800’s b Believed a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society c Coined the term sociology 2 Harriet Martineau 18021876 a Offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices of Britain and the United States b Society in America examined religion, politics, child rearing, and immigration, giving special attention to social class distinctions, gender, and race c Emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, health, and population have on social problems d Favored women’s rights, slave emancipation, & religious tolerance 3 Herbert Spencer 18201903 a Not compelled to correct society, simply to understand it better b Applied Darwin’s concept on evolution of species to society to explain how they change and evolve over time c “Survival of the Fittest” → People are naturally rich/poor d Suggested that because societies are bound to change eventually, one need not be critical of present social arrangements or work actively for social change 4 Emile Durkheim 18581917 a Best known for insistence that behavior must be understood within a larger social context instead of individualistic terms b Main interest consequences of work in modern societies. Stated the growing division of labor in industrial societies led to anomie: the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective, typically when people lose their sense of purpose and direction i Periods of anomie lead to suicide from people unable to cope c Shared Comte’s belief that sociology should provide direction for social change d Advocated creation of social groups between family and state, like unions 5 Max Weber 18641920 a Taught students to employ verstehen (German for understanding/insight) in their intellectual work b Stated we cannot analyze social behavior by objective material like used for weight. Must learn subjective meanings people attach to their actions how they view and explain their behavior i Fraternity social hierarchy c Credited for the ideal type: a construct/ model for evaluating certain cases 6 Karl Marx 18181883 a Durkheim’s thinking about the impact of the division of labor in industrial societies was related to Marx’s writings & Weber’s concern for a valuefree objective society was a direct response to Marx’s deeply held convictions. All three shared dual interest in abstract philosophical issues and the concrete reality of everyday life b Emphasized the group identifications and associations that influence an individual’s place in society i The major focus of contemporary sociology 7 W. E. B. DuBois 18681963 a Encouraged sociologists to view society through the eyes of those segments of the population that rarely influence decision making, as well as drawing on scientific principles to study social problems such as those experienced by Blacks in the United States b Many of his ideas challenged the status quo which led to the lack of a receptive audience c Helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909 d Coined the term double consciousness to refer to the division of an individual’s identity into two or more social realities 8 TwentiethCentury Developments a Charles Horton Cooley 18641929 i Shared desire of Durkheim, Weber, and Marx to learn more about society ii Preferred to use the sociological perspective to look first at smaller units (facetoface groups such as families and gangs). Saw them as the people that shape ideals, beliefs, values, and social nature. b Jane Addams 18601935 i Member of the American Sociological Society and co founded the famous Chicago Hull House ii Main goal of assisting the underprivileged c Robert Merton 19102003 i In 1968 he produced a theory in which he noted different ways in which people attempt to achieve success in life. In this view some people may deviate from the socially approved goal of accumulating material goods or the socially accepted means of achieving that goal ii Emphasized that sociology should strive to bring together the macrolevel microlevel approaches to the study of society d Pierre Bourdieu 19302002 i Wrote about how capital (including cultural and social assets) in its many forms sustains individuals and families from one generation to the next ii Cultural capital refers to non economic goods, such as family background and education iii Social capital refers to the collective benefit of social networks IV Major Theoretical Perspectives A Functionalist Perspective: emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability 1 Sports: almost religious, uses ritual and ceremony to reinforce the common values of a society: socialization of young people into competition and patriotism, physical well being, spectators shed tension and aggressive energy in socially accepted way, create community and unity 2 Manifest functions: intended consequences of an aspect of society a Go to college for an education 3 Latent functions: unintended consequence of an aspect of society a Go to college to find spouse 4 Dysfunctions: an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability B Conflict Perspective: assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over the power or the allocation of resources 1 Sports: reflect and exacerbate many divisions of society, big business in which profits are more important that participant health, false idea that success can be achieved through hard work alone, athlete behavior promotes violence and drugs C The Marxist View: argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus. Through various forms of conflict, groups will tend to attain differing amounts of material and nonmaterial resources (e.g. the wealthy vs. the poor). More powerful groups will tend to use their power in order to retain power and exploit groups with less power. D The Feminist Perspective: sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization, typically focusing on the macro level 1 Sports: Reinforces the roles that men and women play in larger society, men use illegal drugs and women excessively diet, gender expectations (no women in NASCAR, etc.), women make less money E Queer Theory: the study of society from the perspective of a broad spectrum of sexual identities 1 Sports: promotes heterosexuality as only acceptable identity for athletes F Interactionist Perspective: generalizations of everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole George Herbert Mead 1 Sports: heightened parentchild involvement lead to parental expectation for involvement, build friendship networks that permeate everyday life, teammates work together regardless of class, race, etc, people are defined by their athletic ability and reputations 2 (symbolic) Interactionism is a sociological framework in which human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects such as material things, actions, relationships, symbols, etc a Nonverbal communication includes gestures, facial expressions, and postures including dress codes, etc 3 Dramatical approach was popularized by Erving Goffman 1922 1982 in which people are seen as theatrical performers, feeling the need to project a certain image depending on their surroundings 4 Major Sociological Perspective Functionalist Conflict Interactionist View of Society Stable, well integrated Characterized by tension Active in influencing and struggle between and affecting everyday groups social interaction Level of Analysis Macro Macro Micro, as a way of Emphasized understanding the larger macro phenomena Key Concept Manifest functions Inequality Symbols Latent functions Capitalism Nonverbal com. Dysfunctions Stratification FacetoFace int. View of the Individual People are socialized to People are shaped by People manipulate perform societal power, coercion, and symbols and create their functions authority social worlds through interaction View of Social Order Maintained through Maintained through Maintained by shared cooperation and force and coercion understanding of consensus everyday behavior View of Social Change Predictable, reinforcing Change takes place all Reflected in poeple’s the time and may have social positions and com. positive conseq. with others Example Public punishments Laws reinforce the People respect laws or reinforce the social orderpositions of those in disobey them based on power their own past experience Proponents Emile Durkheim Karl Marx George Herbert Mead Talcott Parsons W.E.B. DuBois Charles Horton Cooley Robert Merton Ida WellsBarnett Erving Goffman V Taking Sociology with You A Applied and Clinical Sociology 1 Applied sociology: the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yeling practice applications for human behavior and organizations 2 Clinical sociology: dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships (therapy) or restructuring social institutions 3 Applied and clinical sociology can be contrasted with basic sociology which seeks a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena
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