History_of_Broadcasting.pdf Comm 1003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Williamson on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 1003 at East Carolina University taught by Glenn Hubbard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass media in Journalism and Mass Communications at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
History of Broadcasting Questions o What is the name of the guy who invented the gadget that led to the radio? Marconi o What was the gadget called? Wireless telegraph o Why isn’t he credited as the inventor? He invented the wireless telegraph with Morris code but radio uses sound. Origins of Radio o Radio developed from two early forms of “wired” communication o Telegraph (Samuel Morse) Getting rid of the Wires o James Clerk Maxell – theorized the existence of invisible, radiant, energy (electromagnetic energy) o Heinrich Hertz- was the first to prove Maxwell’s theory. He discovered waves which were named Hertz one cycle per second o Gulielmo Marconi Put Hertz’s waves to practical use: Wireless communication Created hardware to transmit coded messages Transmitted in dots and dashes not voice o Reginald Fessenden Made the first voice in broadcast in 1906 Used a telephone as a microphone Transmission led to the development of radio broadcasting o Lee De Forest Created the AUDION vacuum tube that allowed human voice to be carried on an amplified on Hertzian waves Audion led to the development of radio o Frank Conrad One of those radio tinkerers from Pittsburg KDKA got off the ground in 1920 o Titanic In 1912 the Titanic affect the regulation of wireless technology Rules governing radio broadcasting were changed Laws changed where they had to answer distress calls no matter what Questions o What did Marconi invent? The wireless telegraph o Why was Marconi’s invention considered the invention of radio? Because it was just telegraph it didn’t have sound it used Morris code not voices etc. o What is one Hertz? 2 One cycle per second. 1912 Radio Act o grew out of the disaster of the Titanic o The first comprehensive legislation governing land- based stations o Required federal licensing of all radio transmitters You had to apply for a license through the government to get a radio transmitter o Required Secretary of commerce to grant licenses to all U.S citizens upon request. o Same concept with Henry the VIII with the printing press. Post War Development o Government worried about possible foreign control from Marconi’s large companies o GE took over American Marconi in 1919, creating RCA o AT&T and Westinghouse joined GE as investors in RCA o Patent holders joined a cross licensing agreement The First Broadcast Station o Frank Conrad set up 8XK in Pittsburg playing music and news o Conrad Developed many loyal listeners o 8XK became KDKA Boom Era (1920s) o November 1920, KDKA went on the air o Broadcast election returns 3 o Programming created to sell radios KDKA started the same day as the general election ft Cox vs Harding Five Reasons why KDKA is the oldest o Used radio waves o Uncoded signals o Continuously scheduled programs o For the general public o Licensed by the government Boom Era (1920s) o Programming was very basic o Technology was limited o Interference became a major problem The Start of Radio Advertising o Stations later moved to sponsorship of programs o AT&T owned WEAF became “Toll broadcasting” Hoover’s Radio Conferences o Herbert Hoover was secretary of commerce in mid ‘20s o 1922-1925 Hoover held a series of four radio conferences o interference continued to get worse o broadcasters asked Hoover for regulation o hoover lacked the authority to implement regulation o president Coolidge urged congress to take action Radio Act of 1927 o Replaced the 1912 radio act 4 o Passed by congress in 1927 o Adopt suggestions from Hoover’s radio conferences Communications Act of 1934 o Kept intact legislation from the Radio Act of 1927, but established the federal Communications Commission o Next big shake-up in regulation didn’t come until 1996 5