Chapter 5: : Where it All Takes Place (Continued)
Chapter 5: : Where it All Takes Place (Continued) PLS 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Opong-Wadeer on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 150 at University of Rhode Island taught by Nathaniel Mitkowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plants, People and the Planet in Plant Science at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 5: Where it All Takes Place (Continued) 10/5/16 Tomatoes: Solanum lycopersicum Known as “solancaeous plant” The tomato is a fruit Fruit = ripened ovary of a seed bearing plant Nutritionally more like a vegetable Thousands of varieties, many colors and shapes, and purposes Planted from seed Seeds covered in gel Can be transplanted Warm temps Almost identical to the plant they came from o Different from apples Potato: Solanum Tuberosum Family Solanaceae Known as “solanaceous plant” Tomato and potato closely related Different species in the same genus Other relatives: Pepper (capsicum) Petunia (Petunia) Tobacco (Nicoitana) Jimson weed (Datura) o Most poisonous plant on Earth Mandrake (Mandragora) Nightshade (Belladona) o Found in corn mazes Alkaloids: Most solanaceous plants contain alkaloids Complex molecules that are often poisonous in high concentrations Morphine, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine o Deadly Atropine, scapalomine, hyoscayamine, solanine o Less poisonous but have effect on nervous systems Tomato origin: Originated from Peru Solanum Lycopersion transported to Mexico where it flourished Aztec and other civilizations had them by 500 BC European explorers exported them to Italy and Spain by about 1500 AD Tomato pollination: Tomatoes are “Self-fertile” Tomato flowers are “perfect” o Can be used regardless Do not require another tomato plant to produce fruit Each seed produced by a tomato plant is genetically identical to every other seed Tomatoes breed true o Apples don’t China is where most Tomatoes are produced (2x as more) Tomatoes and bees? Bees can increase tomato pollination Buzzing of the bee shakes pollen loose Lower rates of fruit in greenhouses Depending on conditions, 2-25% of seed may be cross pollinated Cross pollination = new varieties! Potato origin: Originated from Chiloe Archipelago and the Andes in Peru Cultivated as early as 10,000 BC Also spread by Europeans o Irish Potato famine Many varieties, color, shapes Potato is similar to tomatoes in these ways Potatoes: Planted from tubers Usually cut up pieces of potatoes Don’t breed true as easily as tomatoes Can also be microtubers Special “seed potatoes” o Act like a seed to start new potato plants Certified clean Seed no good, because they sexually reproduce Potato pollination: Potato fruit is poisonous (solanine in it) o If you eat too much o Any part of the potato that is green has solanine in it because it gets exposed to the sun Very dependent upon environment Cross pollinated Don’t breed true Can be used for making new varieties China produces most Seed potatoes: Grown in special locations o Adirondacks Irish potatoes? Irish were forced to grow potatoes Peasants had extremely small plots Only potatoes could sustain a family Irish poor cause English owned them 10-foot row = 5-20 lbs. of potatoes adult man would east 15 lbs./day grain was exported to England 1845-1851, late blight disease killed all the potatoes, 1 million dead, 1 million left Potato beetles also killed potatoes
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