ANTHRO33: Lecture 4 (10/4/16)
ANTHRO33: Lecture 4 (10/4/16) ANTHRO 33
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viola You on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 33 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by E. A. Cartmill in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Culture and Communication in Anthropology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Research in Linguistic Anthropology What do linguistic anthropologists study? ● Usually concerned with how language shapes and/or reflects social life ● Research questions may change as research progresses ● Ahearn example of “jabar” in marriage practices ○ Studying shift from arranged to selfinitiated marriage ○ Interviews asking whether marriage was arranged or selfinitiated ○ Some responded with “jabarjasi” (violently, or by force) ○ Ahearn heard jabar and jastai (just like) ○ Pressed respondents to choose one of her two categories ○ After learned word, changed interview style and type of analysis ● When drawing conclusions about someone else's language, take step back and think about how you’re imposing your perception of language and interactions ● Why might study change? ○ Experiences change initial assumptions ○ Understanding of culture grows ○ Language proficiency grows ○ Encounter new insights into social life ○ Develop letter questions about language How do linguistic anthropologists collect data? ● Typical to use several methods ● Often embrace “mixed methods” approach ○ Quantitative ■ Number of people ■ Surveys: to analyze, you categorize and count responses ○ Qualitative Participant Observation ● Most common research method in Anthropology ● Spend a long time (months, years) living in a community ○ Learn the language ○ Develop familiarity with norms, practices, meanings ○ Take any notes (field notes) ○ Gain insight into a community of practice Interviews ● Talk to research subjects to obtain information ● Vary in how structured and preplanned they are ○ Structured =/= formal ■ Can ask questions in an informal way ○ Semistructured ○ Openended ● One project may have several kinds of interviews ○ Could use responses from first part of respondents and make next questions more structured ● Subject responses are not: ○ Facts usually perspective ○ Transparent you have to look underneath the surface of what they’re saying ■ Think about context at which these questions are asked/answered ● Need interpretation and analysis ● Interviewer influences response ○ Ex: Ahearn about marriage ■ What if she was a man? ■ What if the husbands were presnt? ○ Need to learn “how to ask” Surveys ● Often have scalar responses ○ Ex: “On a scale from 110, how confusing was the last lecture?” ● Can constrain responses in other ways ○ Ex: “Of the topics discussed last lecture, which did you find the most confusing?” ● Aim is to get information that can be pooled across participants Recording naturallyoccurring conversation ● Goal is to observe language as it happens ● Having an audio/video recorder changes context ○ Not completely passive observer ● Trying to reduce influence ○ People acclimate quickly they forget they’re being observed, so after longer periods of time they normalize their speech more ○ Can let participants record could be more comfortable with how they interact ○ Get permission for future recording ○ Surreptitious recording enter the union (“by entering this building, you will be on camera”) ■ Not advised, discouraged want permission ○ Let people review their recordings ● Transcribing takes time! ● Hours of coding time for each hour of recording ● But acquiring lots of recordings is good ○ Avoid conclusions based on small sample ○ Assess robustness across people or contexts ● Transcribing isn’t neutral ○ All transcription or coding involves choices ■ Whose speech to include ■ What features of language to encode (IPA? Pauses?) ■ Should you capture exactly what was sad or the gist? ■ How much context to provide ■ What nonspeech features to code ● Breathing, facial expressions, etc. ■ How to code interactional features like overlap (interjections) ○ Some common transcription practices, but ultimately depends on the question the researcher is taking Experiments ● Elicit speech or behavioral responses ● Control elements of the environment ● Might compare speakers of different languages or other groups ● Frequently used in studies of child language and language/thought ● Ex from Ahearn: Matched Guise test ○ Control for natural variation in voice features ○ Same person speaking in different languages or different accents ○ Allows to look at differences in how people speak based on the language itself instead of the identity of the person Written Texts ● Look at written works and practices surrounding literacy ● Includes digital literacy ● How do people consume, produce, engage with, and regard written forms of language? ● Do the writing systems matter? ● In societies where writing is ubiquitous in the environment, intersection between text and context may be important to consider, even when studying spoken language What do you have at the end? ● Things you collect: ○ Field notes ○ Interviews ○ Surveys ○ Video recordings ○ Tape recordings ● Are these data? ○ Yes and no not quite yet data to analyze ● Transcription, translation, other coding Conversation Analysis ● Look at conversational context ● Immediate interactional context ● Usually focuses on spoken features ● Importance of “adjacency pairs” ○ What’s up? → Not much ○ Can you come to the part? → I’d love to, but… ■ Straight up saying No would mean something a lot different ● Great way to look at normals and social relationships, commonalities in interaction patterns Erving Goffman ● Speaker ○ Animator ■ Person giving life to the language ○ Author ■ Person who composed the language ○ Principal ■ Person whose beliefs or perspectives are represented ● Hearer ○ Ratified (addressed or intended) ○ Unratified (overhearers, eavesdroppers) Shifts in Footing ● Happens often ○ Storytelling ○ Quoted speech ○ Jokes ○ “Normal” conversation ● Saying something that is misaligned with what YOU would normally say All research is partial. Homework ● Due Oct. 13 (Thurs.) ● 23 pages long ● Due before lecture starts ● Hard copy Homework #1 ● Identify a speech community ● Construct a research question (and motivation) ● Consider consent and ethics ● Think about data collection Homework #2 ● Research question (and motivation) revised from HW1 ● Describe speech community revised from HW1 ● Present piece of data (transcription) ● Analyze data and link to class themes 4 Sections use these as headings ● Research question ● Participants ● Consent ● Data collection
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