ARS 100: Chapter 5-8 and Video Notes
ARS 100: Chapter 5-8 and Video Notes ARS 100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lbiador on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARS 100 at Arizona State University taught by Engle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art in Art History at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
ARS 100: Chapter 5-8 and Video Notes CHAPTER 5: DRAWING: most basic art form (because we all draw) First drawing implement 65,000 to 75,000 years old found in Blombos Cave in South Africa. Drawings fall into at least three categories 1. Sketches: RECORD AN IDEA OR PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT SOMETHING THE ARTIST HAS SEEN 1. Quick and loose that captures the idea of the artwork 1. Plans or Preparatory Studies: FOR OTHER PROJECTS, SUCH AS BUILDINGS, SCULPTURES, CRAFTS, PAINTINGS, PLAYS, AND FILMS 1. More detailed 1. Fully developed and autonomous (independent drawing) works of art 1. Can go from entirely finished work of art to just a sketch Dry Media • Silverpoint • Pencil (ground graphite mixed with clay) • Charcoal (burnt wood) • **Kathe Kollwitz “Self Portrait” 1924, Charcoal: worked in the early 1900s, a German Expressionist painter and made money through drawings in newspaper and magazines, she was arrested because people didn’t appreciate her artwork. She’s telling us what she looks like, tells us what she’s doing, and how the artistic flow goes from the brain onto the canvas. • Zigzag line represents motion/movement • Chalk ((pigment & a binder—gum arabic) • Pastel (pigment, a binder, & ground chalk—came into wide use around 1400s) • • Crayon (pigment, wax binder) - Conte Crayon: richer and has more depth and flexibility Crayon Strictly defined, the term crayon includes any drawing material in stick form This can include charcoal, chalk, and pastel, plus wax implements Fluid Media Pen and Ink Pen and Wash Brush and Ink Brush and Wash Pen and Ink • Used since ancient times • Earliest were reeds (plant) • Quills, plucked from live birds, were used in the Middle Ages. • Replaced in the nineteenth century with mass produced metal nib, which is slipped into a stylus. Pen and Wash Wash - diluted ink that is applied with brush to create tonal definitions. • Often combined with fine clear lines of pure ink to provide tonal emphasis. • **Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) Boy Playing Flute used ink and brush to create choppy lines. Sepia overwash. Cartoons Cartoon - derived from the Italian word ‘cartone’ meaning paper. Originally, a cartoon was a full-scale preparatory drawing made for a fresco, usually on paper and drawn to scale—For example, Michelangelo’s Sybil Meaning expanded to include humorous & satirical drawings in 1843 A drawing that caricatures or satirizes an event or person of topical/political interest—all rely on caricature—gross exaggeration & distortion of natural features Chapter 6 Painting Different vehicles/agents that hold pigments together: Lime plaster Wax Egg Oil Acrylic (plastic) Water Gum Arabic Problems with most vehicles: Cracking – dry out Yellowing Discoloration Types of Painting Fresco: o Buon fresco: applied to wet plaster (soaked up) o Secco fresco: applied to dry plaster; easily starts to crack and peel off. Doesn’t last as long o Fresco means ‘fresh’ painting on a wall; in-situ o Lime plaster (binder) holds fresco together from flaking off o Giotto, Lamentation (to feel sorrow), (1305) buon fresco. Applied cobalt paint for the sky and used the secco technique. The blue has worn off throughout the century. Revolutionary because it looks real Encaustic: Consists of pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state—must be kept at constant temperature Binder – wax hold pigment together with certain properties Mummy Portrait of a priest of Serapis (120-160 CE) if wealthy, you can be mummified in order to be identified. Tempera: Consists of ground pigments mixed with a vehicle of egg yolk or whole eggs thinned with water—dries quickly & difficult to rework Binder – egg (dries quickly and tends to crack if applied too thickly) Oil: Consists of ground pigment combined with a linseed oil vehicle and turpentine medium or thinner—dries slowly & easy to rework—provides subtle gradations. Far more versatile medium than tempura Can be blended to create tones and hues Dries slowly Oil painting is luminescent Binder: oil (linseed) Follower of Rembrandt can Rijn, Head of St. Matthew (1661) – Painting in style of Rembrandt Glazing: The application of multiple layers of transparent or semitransparent films of paint to a surface; Diluted paint Can apply hundreds of layers = more vibrant colors there’s going to be. Acrylic: Is a mixture of pigment and plastic vehicle that can be thinned (and washed off brushes and hands) with water—can be used on a variety of surfaces that need no special preparation Binder: plastic Easy to clean Watercolor: Today refers specifically to a technique called aquarelle—transparent films of paint—composed of pigments and a gum arabic vehicle, thinned with water Binder: water and gum Arabic Difficult to use and requires heavy paper Artists use it because of transparency Gouache: Italian word guazzo, meaning “puddle” Essentially watercolor mixed with an opaque ingredient such as white chalk Not transparent David Hockney, Punchinello with Block - gouache Chapter 7 The Importance of Printmaking: very detailed and entailed and technical Printmaking allows us to study great works of art from a distance Because prints are less expensive than original works of art, prints can be owned by the general public Methods of Printmaking A design or image is created in or on a surface by hitting or pressing with a tool The image is then transferred to paper or some sort of surface The transferred image is called a “print” The surface is called a “matrix” Metal Stone Silk screens are thee major matrix Types of matrix: Varies according to the printmaking technique but include: • Wood blocks, • Metal plates, • Stone slabs, • Silkscreens Each require special tools Printmaking Processes Divided into four major categories— Relief : woodcut, wood engraving Like a stamp Raised areas hold ink Material not wanted is cut away and the ink is applied to the surface on the top Intaglio: engraving, drypoint, etching, mezzotint & aquatint Incised areas hold ink Requires a metal matrix and all the intaglio printing processes, the ink goes below the surface in the grooves Lithography Image area holds ink; non-image areas repel ink Ink passes through areas of screen that are not blocked Done on stone Serigraphy Another name for silkscreen Intaglio (over) Italian for incising or engraving—artist can draw directly onto the printing surface Encompasses many different media—engraving, drypoint, etching, & mezzotint and aquatint Intaglio prints are derived from images that lie below the surface of the matrix Created by using metal plates into which lines have been incised —lines covered with ink—which is forced into the linear depression—surface is carefully wiped clean Engraving: intaglio printing process Engravings—the oldest intaglio printmaking process, th began in the 15 century Engravings are made by directly cutting the grooves into the plate by hand with a tool called a burin Clean lines on copper, zinc, or steel are made using a burin under great pressure creating deep lines that hold a lot of ink Creates a ridge like texture Etching—the design is drawn into an acid-resistant ground & then cut by Etching is an intaglio process that is more versatile than engraving or drypoint Physical pressure does not cut the lines. Instead, acid—usually nitric acid—does the cutting A chemical process does the rest of the work in etching—acid- resistant ground covers plate—image is drawn upon it with fine needle—then placed in acid bath Henri Matisse, Loulou Distracted – acid eats through the lines. Etching intaglio process Mezzotint (half-tint): Italian for hard tint Advances by Dutchman Ludwig von Siegen—mid-seventeenth century Non-linear techniques—engraving does NOT depend on line even though its an intaglio printing process and produces broad tonal areas. Tonal areas – shaded areas Entire metal plate is worked with a carved, multi-toothed implement (hatcher)—produces thousands of tiny pits—artist scrapes areas of the plate, which will produce lighter areas— produces broad tonal areas Rarely used, too time-consuming Doesn’t look like a print but looks like a drawing Etching Etching is an intaglio process, but there are unique differences Minimal pressure is used for the depth of the line in etching A chemical process does the rest of the work in etching—acid- resistant ground covers plate—image is drawn upon it with fine needle—then placed in acid bath Drypoint Is a method of engraving A needle is dragged across the Surface—the metal removed by the drypoint needle forms a burr at the side of the trough Because the burr catches most of the ink, drypoint lines tend to be soft and fuzzy—produces a velvety appearance Drypoint scratches are rather shallow, and the burr does not hold up well after only a few dozen impressions under heavy pressure Produces a velvety soft image Rembrandt van Rijt, Crist Crucified Between Two Thieves, drypoint-intaglio printing process that creates burr and velvety soft image Lithography "Stone writing" based on water not mixing with wax • Planographic print-making process • Printing surface is flat • Lithography or planographic printing - invented in the 19th- century by German playwright Aloys Senefelder. • Unlike relief and intaglio printing, the matrix used in lithography is completely flat. • Kathe Kollwitz, The Mothers – lithography done on a Bavarian stone to make the print, but looks like charcoal How: 1. A drawing is made with a greasy crayon on a flat stone slab Bavarian stone 2. A solution of nitric acid is applied as a fixative 3. The surface is then dampened with water. 4. The stone is covered with oily ink using a roller. (The ink sticks to the wax but not the water) 5. then paper is pressed to the stone and the ink is transferred from the wax. Lithography: Artist draws with a greasy implement on lithographic stone—surface is then treated with chemical and can be done colors Uses Bavarian stone Serigraphy Serigraphy is also known as silkscreen printing; now its synthetic Can be done in colors using paint or ink Stencils are used to create the design or image Silk, nylon, or a fine mesh is stretched on a frame—a stencil with a cutout design affixed to the screen—paper or canvas placed beneath—several stencils may be used to apply different colors Unlike other graphic processes Paint or ink may be used and is forced through the screen using a squeegee Alex Katz, Red Coat, used colors in serigraphy/silkscreen, each color required different ink. Used wife as his model CHAPTER 8 IMAGING: PHOTOGRAPHY, FILM, VIDEO, AND DIGITAL ARTS Photography invented in 1829 Word derived from Greek roots meaning “to write with light” History of Photography The Camera Obscura Photosensitive Surfaces Heliography The Daguerreotype The Negative Portraits Photojournalism Photography as an Art Form People to Know Camera Obscura—c. 300 years ago Heinrich Schulze—1727 discovered that silver salts had light- sensitive qualities Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce—1826 invented Heliography Jacques-Mandé Daguerre—1837 invented first permanent photograph William Henry Fox Talbot—1839 invented the negative Julia Margaret Cameron—1850s famous photographer Gaspard Felix Tournachon “Nadar”—1850s famous photographer The Lumiére Brothers—1907 introduced the autochrome Matthew Brady and Alexander Gardner—early 20 century— th first to use the camera to record major historical events History of Photography 1727 German physicist Heinrich Schulze discovered that silver salts had light-sensitive qualities—never recorded natural image 1802 Thomas Wedgwood found that paper soaked in silver nitrate did take on projected images as a chemical reaction to light—but not permanent Heliography: Invented by Joseph-Nicéphre in 1826 Bitumen, or asphalt residue placed on a pewter plate to create a photosensitive surface—bitumen soluble in lavender oil if kept in dark —insoluble in light Daguerreotype resulted from partnership in 1829 between Niepce and Louis Jacque-Mandé Daguerre Daguerreotype: A thin sheet of silver-plated copper that was chemically treated, placed in a camera obscura, and exposed to a narrow beam of light—then treated chemically again Daguerreotype: • Needed to be exposed from 5 to 40 minutes • Recorded image reversed, left to right • Delicate image had to be sealed behind glass to remain fixed • Plate exposed to light became the actual daguerreotype • Copies could not be made • Within 10 years waiting time reduced to 30 to 60 seconds • Became inexpensive The Negative: Invented in 1839 by British scientist William Henry Fox Talbot. 1. Placed an object on a piece of light sensitive paper that was coated with emulsions. 2. Exposed the arrangement to light. 3. Called them photogenic drawings. 4. Image was reversed and inverted. (Black and white reversed) as well as reversal of light and dark values Also made the first contact print by placing the negative on a second sheet of light sensitive paper and exposing both of them to light Autochrome: Invented by Louis Lumiere in 1907 (color process) glass plates coated with 3 layers of dyed potato starch that served as color filters. A layer of silver bromide emulsion covered the starch—when the autochrome was developed, it produced a positive color transparency Replaced in 1932—when Kodak began to produce color film Photojournalism • Photojournalism revolutionized the capacity of the news media to bring realistic representation of important events before the public’s eyes. • Alexander Gardner first used the camera to record major historical events such as the US Civil War. • Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, photograph— photojournalism black and white image capturing the image of a mother and her children depressed and suffering during the dust bowl Photography as an Art Form • In 1902 Alfred Stieglitz founded the Photo Secession, a group dedicated to advancing photography as a separate art form. A photograph has the capacity to stir us. Cindy Sherman, Untitled, photography—photography as an art form – comments on how fashion distorts women’s perspectives at themselves which makes a woman insane Video Sequence of film Middle East o Tablets were found in the Mesopotamia depicting codes telling the story of eternal life. o Images are freeze framed o Does not depict beginning, middle and end o Visual elements include the hero and the subplot Greeks o Odysseus o Sculptures depicting the climax which shows emotions Romans o Column – “movie epic frozen in stone” o Divided scenes through designs like trees, presented birds- eye view and different perspectives to make the battle more dramatic. o They found a way to summarize important scenes on one view o But does not have the power to captivate us like modern films Australians – Aboriginal o Painted images in the cave – looks like doodle – aboriginal art o Use lines to tell stories in a single image though stories people already know o Combined story telling with music which makes it enduring o 1924 – invented the moving picture including hero, plot, and characters with emotion but lacks sound
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