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Intro to Human Communication Chapter 5 Nonverbal Messages

by: Ashley Trecartin

Intro to Human Communication Chapter 5 Nonverbal Messages SPEE 104

Marketplace > Southwestern Michigan College > Speech > SPEE 104 > Intro to Human Communication Chapter 5 Nonverbal Messages
Ashley Trecartin

GPA 3.43

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Notes over the 5th chapter we'll be going over in class on Thursday.
Intro to Human Communication
Joel Thompson Jr.
Class Notes
Human, communication, Nonverbal, messages, Chapter, 5
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPEE 104 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Joel Thompson Jr. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Communication in Speech at Southwestern Michigan College.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication I. Principles of Nonverbal Communication  A. Nonverbal Messages Interact with Verbal Messages 1. Nonverbal communication is communication without words.  2. Verbal and nonverbal messages interact with each other in six major ways.  a. Accent is nonverbal communication often used to accent or emphasize  some part of the verbal message.  b. Complement is nonverbal communication that may be used to  complement, to ass nuances of meaning not communicated by your  verbal message.  c. Contradict: You may deliberately contradict your verbal message with  nonverbal movements.  d. Control: Nonverbal movements may be used to control, or to indicate  your desire to control, the flow, of verbal messages.  e. Repeat: You can repeat or restate the verbal message nonverbally.  f. Substitute: You may also use nonverbal communication to substitute for verbal messages.  3. An emoticon or smiley is a typed symbol that communicates through a keyboard the nuances of the message normally conveyed by nonverbal expression.  B. Nonverbal Messages Help Manage Impressions 1. To be liked you might smile, pat another on the back, and shake hands warmly.  2. To be believed you might use focused eye contact, a firm stance, and open hand  gestures.  3. To excuse failure, you might look sad, cover your face with your hands and  shake your head.  4. To secure help by indicating helplessness you might use open hand gestures, a  puzzled look, and inept movements.  5. To hide faults, you might avoid self­touching 6. To be followed you might dress the part of a leader or display your diploma or  awards where others can see them.  7. To confirm your self­image and to communicate it to others you might dress  in certain ways or decorate your apartment with items that reflect your  personality.  C. Nonverbal Messages Help form Relationships 1. You use nonverbal signals to communicate the nature of your relationship to  another person and you and that person communicated nonverbally with each  other.  D. Nonverbal Messages Structure Conversation 1. When you’re in conversation, you give and receive cues—signals that you’re  ready to speak, to listen, to comment on what the speaker just said. These cues  regulate and structure the interaction.  E. Nonverbal Messages Can Influence and Deceive  1. You can influence others not only through what you say but also though your  nonverbal signals. 2. Gesturing even seems to help learning and memory.  3. With the ability to influence comes the ability to deceive—to mislead another  person into thinking something is true when it’s false, or that something is false  when it’s true.  F. Nonverbal Messages Are Crucial for Expressing Emotions 1. You use nonverbal messages to hide your emotions.  2. At the same time that you express emotions nonverbally, you also use nonverbal  cues to decode or decipher the emotions of others.  II. Channels of Nonverbal Communication  A. Body Messages 1. Body Gestures a. An especially useful classification in kinesics—or the study of  communication through body movement—identifies five types of  gestures.  b. Emblems are substitutes for words; they’re body movements that have  rather specific verbal translations.  c. Illustrators accompany and literally illustrate verbal messages d. Affect displays are the movements of the face that convey emotional  meaning—the expressions that show anger and fear, happiness and  surprise, eagerness and fatigue.  e. Regulators monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another  individual.  f. Adaptors satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious  awareness; they’re unintentional movements that usually go unnoticed.  i. Self­adaptors usually satisfy a physical need generally serving  to make you more comfortable.  ii. Alter­adaptors are the boy movements you make in response to  your interactions.  iii. Object­adaptors are movements that involve your manipulation of some object.  g. Gestures and Cultures i. There is a lot of differences between the meanings of gestures in  difference cultures.  2. Body Appearance a. You communicated with your body even if you don’t move.  b. Your body gives away your race and (depending) your nationality. c. Attractiveness is another way you communicate.  d. So is height.  B. Facial Communication 1. Through interactions your face will show emotions to communicate.  2. At least eight emotions can be shown through facial expressions including;  happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest. 3. The Smile a. This is likely the first thing thought about when communicating with the  face.  b. There are two kinds of smiles.  i. The real smile, called the Duchenne smile, is genuine; it’s an  unconscious movement that accurately reflects your feelings at  the time. The fake smile is forced.  c. Smiling is an expression of enjoyment and happiness.  d. Women tend to smile more than men.  4. Facial Management a. There are management techniques to utilize to communicate effectively.  i. Intensify to exaggerate surprise ii. De­intensify to cover own joy iii. Neutralize to cover sadness iv. Mask to cover disappointment v. Simulate to express unfelt emotions.  5. Facial Feedback. a. The facial feedback hypothesis says that your facial expressions  influence your physiological arousal.  6. Culture and Facial Communication a. The different facial communications in different cultures reflect which  are permitted to be shown in public.  C. Eye Communication 1. Occulesis is the study of the messages communicated by the eyes, which vary  depending on the duration, direction, and quality of the eye behavior.  2. Eye Contact a. Eye contact serves six purposes.  i. To monitor feedback ii. To secure attention iii. To regulate the conversation iv. To signal the nature of the relationship v. To signal status vi. To compensate for physical distance 3. Eye Avoidance a. When you avoid eye contact or advert your glance, you allow others to  maintain their privacy, Goffman called this civil inattention.  b. Eye avoidance can also signal lack of interest—in a person, a  conversation, or some visual stimuli.  4. Pupil Dilation a. Pupil size shows the amount of arousal a person feels. 5. Culture and Eye Communication a. Vary depending on culture and gender.  b. Women make and maintain eye contact more and longer than men.  D. Touch Communication 1. Tactile communication, or communication by touch, also called haptics, is the  most primitive form of communication.  2. The Meanings of Touch a. Emotions b. Playfulness c. Control d. Ritual e. Task­related 3. Touch and Avoidance a. Touch avoidance is positively related to communication apprehension,  or gear or anxiety about communicating.  4. Culture and Touch a. In some cultures, touch—especially between opposite sexes—is not  appropriate.  E. Paralanguage 1. Paralanguage is the vocal by nonverbal dimension of speech.  2. Paralanguage includes vocal characteristics such as rate, volume, and pitch.  F. Silence 1. Silence communicates 2. The Function of Silence a. To provide time to think b. To hurt c. To respond to personal anxiety d. To prevent communication e. To communicate emotions f. To achieve specific effects.  3. The Spiral of Silence a. The spiral of silence theory argues that you’re more likely to voice  agreement than disagreement.  G. Spatial Messages and Territoriality 1. Proxemics is the study of the communicative function of space; the study of how people unconsciously structure their space—the distance between people in their  interactions, the organization of space in homes and offices, and even the design  of cities.  2. Four proxemics distances, the distances we maintain between each other in our  interactions correspond closely to major types of relationships.  a. You carry a protective bubble defining your personal distance which  allows you to stay protected and untouched by others.  b. At the social distance, ranging from 4 to 12 feet, you lose the visual  detail you had at the personal distance.  c. Public distance ranges from 12 to 25 feet.  d. The intimate distance is the closest distance in proxemics ranging from  touching to 18 inches.  3. Another type of communication having to do with space is territoriality, the  possessive reaction to an area or to a particular object.  a. Primary territories, or home territories, are areas that you might call  your own.  b. Secondary territories are areas that don’t belong to you but that you  have occupied.  c. Public territories are areas that are open to all people.  d. When you operate in your own territory, you have an interpersonal  advantage, often called the home field advantage.  e. Central markers are items you place in a territory to reserve it for you.  f. Boundary markers set boundaries that divide your territory from that of others.  g. Ear makers are identifying marks that indicate your possession of a  territory or object.  h. Status is signaled by the unwritten law grating the right of invasions or  territorial encroachment.  i. In withdrawal you simply leave the scene.  j. In turf defense you defend the territory against the encroachment.  k. Insulation involves erecting barriers between yourself and those who  would encroach on your territory.  l. Linguistic collusion means speaking in a language or jargon the  invaders can’t understand.  H. Artefactual Communication 1. Artefactual communication consists of messages conveyed by objects that are  made by human hands.  2. Color communication is the use of color to communicate different meanings,  each culture seems to define the meanings that color communicates somewhat  differently.  3. Cultural display is a sign that communicates that person’s culture identification, such as clothing or religious jewelry.  I. Olfactory Messages 1. Olfactory communication, or oflactics, is communication through smell.  J. Temporal Communication 1. Temporal communication is the messages that your time orientation and  treatment of time communicate.  2. Chronemics is the study of the communicative nature of time, how a person’s or  a culture’s treatment of time reveals something about them. Often divided into  psychological and cultural time.  3. Interpersonal time is a wide variety of time­related elements that figure into  interpersonal interactions.  4. Formal time is temporal divisions that are measured objectively, such as  seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, and years.  5. Informal time is temporal divisions that are approximate and that are referred to  with general terms.  6. Monochromic time orientation is a view of time in which things are done  sequentially; one thing is scheduled at a time.  7. Polychromic time orientation is s a view of time in which several things may be scheduled or engaged in at the same time. 


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