New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Bio

by: Megan Wiggs
Megan Wiggs
Virginia Tech

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover material and the text book and the lecture taught on 10/4/16
General Biology
MV lipscomb
Class Notes
Biology, transcription, transcription gene DNA RNA initiation elongation termination Rho-Dependent translation ribosome protein folding chaperonins processing post-translational modifications transport
25 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Science

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Wiggs on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by MV lipscomb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Reviews for General Bio


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/05/16
nd In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the 2 function of DNA is to provide information needed to construct the proteins necessary so that the cell can perform all of its functions. (1 function of DNA was the replication) To do this DNA is transcribed into an mRNA molecule. The Central Dogma: DNA Encodes RNA; RNA Encodes Protein The flow of genetic information in cells from DNA to mRNA to protein is described by the central dogma, which states that genes specify the sequences of mRNAs, which in turn specify the sequences of proteins DNARNAPROTEIN DNA TO mRNA - 1 nucleotide being added to the mRNA strand for every complementary nucleotide read in the DNA strand The translation to protein is more complex because groups of 3 mRNA nucleotides correspond to 1 amino acid of the next protein sequence; however, it’s still systematic Transcription: from DNA to mRNA Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes perform the same process of transcription, with the difference of the membrane bound nucleus in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes : - NucleusmRNA transcriptcytoplasm Prokaryotes : - Occurs in cytoplasm Both 1. Initiation 2. Elongation: synthesizes new mRNA 3. Termination liberates the mRNA 1.Promoter : the DNA sequence onto which the proteins and enzymes involved in transcription bind to initiate the process - A specific sequence of DNA nucleotides - Most cases promoters exist upstream of the genes they regulate - Sequence is very important because it determines whether the corresponding gene is transcribed all of the time, some of the time, or hardly at all 2. Elongation always proceeds from one of the two DNA strands, which is called thetemplate strand enzyme called DNA polymerase 3.two kinds of termination signals: Eukaryotic RNA Processing 200 Adenine residues to the 3’ end, called the poly-A tail. Exons : protein coding sequences, a sequence present in protein-coding mRNA after completion of pre-mRNA splicing Introns: intervening sequences, removed during RNA processing, non– protein-coding intervening sequences that are spliced from mRNA during processing Splicing : process of removing introns and reconnecting exons Only finished mRNAs are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Gene Expression 1: 1. What is a gene? a. A segment of DNA that contains hereditary information 2. How is information stored in DNA? a. Information is stored in the sequence of nucleotides 3. What is the relationship between genes, chromosomes, and DNA? a. Chromosomes are made of DNA (and protein) b. Genes are segments of a DNA molecule c. Each chromosome has 1 DNA molecule and hundreds of genes 4. Gene expression a. Converting genetic information into functional molecules such as RNA and proteins Genes (information and instructions for the parts) and proteins (molecular workers) related: - Beadle and Tatum o Hypothesis: Genes might encode enzymes bread mold experiment o “One gene one enzyme” = results showed a mutation in a single gene affected a single enzyme in a single biochemical pathway Modification of their hypothesis: - not all proteins are enzymes - some proteins consisit of more than 1 polypeptide - “One gene one polypeptide” - more modifications have been made 2 steps from gene to protein: 1. Transcription a. DNA RNA 2. Translation a. RNA protein The central Dogma pathway from which info flows from a DNA molecule to a functional molecule in a cell When comparing DNA and RNA adenine pairs with different bases in DNA and RNA Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA: carries the code from DNA (in nucleus) to ribosome 2. Ribosomal RNA: makes up ribosome 3. Transfer RNA: delivers correct amino acid to the ribosome (adapters) Transcription: - DNA  RNA - 3 STEPS o initiation: begins when RNA polymerase attaches to a promoter (indicates start point of where the gene is in the RNA), formation of transcription bubble= transition to elongation o Elongation: simply adding RNA nucleotides to make our RNA transcript (uracil substitutes for thymine), use template strands as instructions o Termination: Termination sequence tells RNA polymerase it’s at the end Prokaryotes have no nucleus so transcription and translation occur simultaneously Eukaryotic transcription occurs in the nucleus - Exons are need in Eukaryotic transcription (exons are spliced back together) - Eukaryotic mRNA contains introns that are removed - A 5’ and 3’cap is also added Alternative Splicing - Result: different proteins from a single gene


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.