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Class Notes 10/04/16

by: Kamarria Holland

Class Notes 10/04/16 Bio 1103K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1103K > Class Notes 10 04 16
Kamarria Holland
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for the Chemistry of Life on Tuesday, 10/04/16
Class Notes
Chemistry., Biology
25 ?





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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamarria Holland on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Biology 10/4/16 Chemistry of Life Matter = physical material of universe Energy (E) = capacity to do work Energy stored in chemical bonds between matter Break Bonds release energy Energy Types: 1. Potential E = stored E 2. Kinetic E = E of movement a. Heat b. Electrical E c. Movement of objects Structure of Matter Element = substance with specific properties 1. Cannot be broken down into simpler substances 2. Cannot be converted into another element Compound = substance composed of two or more elements; can be broken down into simpler substances 1. Atomic Structure Atoms = smallest unit of an element; consists of subatomic particles a. Nucleus a. # protons = atomic number b. # neutrons, if varyisotopes (on exam) c. # electrons same as protonsinside the orbitals b. Electron orbitals = Electrons found with high probability at certain distances from nucleus a. Number of orbitals(ovals on shell) varies depending on shell(circles) --Closest shell = one orbital (2 electrons) --Second shell = four orbitals (8 electrons) Protons = positive (defines the element) Electron = negative Neutrons = none Full outer most shell is inertno reactive; happy Negative ion of an element is stable Farther the shellhigher the energy level --electron pushed to higher shell gains energy (potential energy) --electron that drops to lower shell loses energy (kinetic energy) 2. Atomic Reactivityconfiguration of electrons in outer most shell dictates atomic reactivity -- greater stability = less reactivity -- orbitals completely occupied  high stability Helium (2 electrons) vs. Hydrogen (1 electron) Molecular Structure Ionic Bonds = one atom “donates” electron(s) to another atom  resulting opposite charge attracts atoms Covalent Bonds = atoms “share” electrons  Low E molecule; stable; ie., CO2, H2O  High E molecule; unstable; ie., gasoline, O2  Number of bonds between atoms vary; single; double, or triple. Elements in same row: Elements in same column: same element configuration that causes it to react Polar Covalent Bonds --nonpolar = electrons evenly dispersed around the molecule (doesn’t mix with water) -- polar = electrons more at one “end” than the other  partial positive and partial negative charges (water is polar mix in water then ionic or polar doesn’t mix with water then its nonpolar) Nonpolar mixes with nonpolar Hydrogen Bonds --hydrogen from water molecule forms weak bond with oxygen from other water molecule lattice formationPositive wants to line up with partial negatives/positives --basis of surface tension Inorganic Molecules Organic = contain carbon & hydrogen Inorganic = does not contain both Water – most important inorganic molecule Why? 1. Water as the universal solvent a. No, universal solvent for polar or ionic compounds 2. ***Water as reactant in biochemical reactions*** a. For covalent bond, every time you leave a bond, you pull water b. Monomerspolymers=water (taken out) c. Add back water when bond is broken d. Synthesis of macromolecules 3. Ionization of Water H2O  H+ + OH- pH Increase H+ acidic 4. Water as temperature moderator a. –High specific heat b. High heat of vaporization c. High heat of fusion 5. Water as a solid a. –water solid is less dense than as a liquid b. Liquid to solid water expands (vs. shrink) 6. High Cohesion a. Cohesive tension b. Water goes from high to low as it evaporates


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