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Bio Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life

by: Hibaq Ahmed

Bio Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life Bio 103-003

Marketplace > George Mason University > Bio 103-003 > Bio Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life
Hibaq Ahmed
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About this Document

Notes on chapter 2 and includes pictures.
Professor Hermoso
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hibaq Ahmed on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103-003 at George Mason University taught by Professor Hermoso in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Biology Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life  Chemicals o The stuff that make up our bodies, other organisms, and the environment  Matter o Living organisms are composed of it o Anything that occupies space and has a mass (weight) o Composed of chemical elements  Element: substance that can’t be broken down to other substance  Molecule: one element  CHON: (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) 4 major elements in human body  Forms many of the compounds in living organisms (ex. DNA)  Compounds o A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed trio o Ex. (Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride)  Atoms: smallest unit of matter o Protons: positive charge o Electrons: negative charge  gives atom its chemical properties o Neutrons: neutron charge o Protons and neutrons  give mass to atoms  packed in the atom’s nucleus  How to calculate o atomic mass  sum of protons and neutron o atomic number  number of protons o number of electrons equal to number of protons  Electron shells (orbital shell) 2 o Electrons occur in energy levels here  1 shell will only hold 2 max  2 ndshell will only hold 8 max rd  3 shell will only hold 8 max o Valence  electrons: the outer most electrons  shell: the outer most shell o Elements with same chemical properties have the same valence electrons o Chemically active elements don’t have full shells (not happy)  If the shells are full then they are NOT chemically active (happy) o Atoms want to fill their outer electrons shell  To do this the atoms share, donate or receive lectrons  Chemical bonds: attractions between atoms  Covalent: sharing electrons  Ionic: receive or give o Ion  An atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from gain or loss of electrons  When electron is lost = positive charge  When electron is gained = negative charge  Ionic bond 3  Two ions with opposite charges attract each other  When the attaction hold the ioins together o Formation of ionic bonds o Covalent bonds  Results when atoms share outer-shell electrons  Molecule: formed when atoms are held together by covalent bonds  Joins atoms into molecule through electron sharing o Electronegativity (see electronegativity notes)  The attraction for shared electrons  Atoms in a covalently bonded molecule always compete for shared electrons  Ex. Water has atoms with different electronegativity’s  Oxygen attracts shared electrons more strongly than hydrogen o Oxygen = slight negative charge o Hydrogen = slight positive charge 4  Shared electrons spend more time near oxygen o Hydrogen bond  Electrically attracted to opposite charged regions on neighboring molecules o Cohesion  A property in which hydrogen bonding causes molecules to stick together o Waters hydrogen bonds moderate temperature  Water has a greater ability to resist temperature change than other liquids because of hydrogen bonding  Heat o The energy associated with movement of atoms and molecules in matter  Temperature o Measures the intensity of heat  Heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds  Heat must be released to form hydrogen bonds o Liquid water in denser than ice  Ice hydrogen bonds are stable  Liquid water hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form o Water is the solvent of life  Solution 5  A liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substance  Solvent  The dissolving agent  Solute  The substance that is dissolved o A few water molecules can break apart into ions  Hydrogen ions (H+)  Hydroxide ions (OH-)  Both are extremely reactive  A balance b/w the two is critical for chemical process to occur in a living organism  Acids  Chemicals other than water can contribute to H+ to a solution  An acidic solution has a higher concentration of H+  pH scale  0-6: acidic  7: neutral  8-14: basic o Chemical reaction  Ex. The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen  Reactants 6  Molecules in the beginning  Product  Molecules in the ending 7


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