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Social Psychology Week 7 Notes

by: Bailey Anderson

Social Psychology Week 7 Notes PSY 270-001

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Psychology > PSY 270-001 > Social Psychology Week 7 Notes
Bailey Anderson

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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over during Mon and Wed of week 7. Friday is fall break so no notes will be taken.
psy orientation soc psy
Dr. Sheets
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Social Psychology Week 7 Notes o Examples:  Titles   Researcher called nurse, identified as Dr. (unknown name) and gave  instructions for excess dose  95% of nurses were caught headed to room with drug  Uniform/dress  Bickman’s RAs told people to “put money in parking meter” cond 1  dressed normal, cond 2 dressed in uniform  No uniform= 45% compliance  Uniform= 95% compliance  Speaking style  Self­confidence; talking fast  Frank Abagnale. Jr. (Catch me if you can)  Pilot, doctor, lawyer  Sales examples?  Crest & ADA  How do we avoid?­ research, ask questions if really expert  Don’t the girls all get prettier at closing time?­ song  52 males, 51 females in 3 bars in TX  3 M/F teams entered bars (1 per bar) at 9, 10:30, and 12 (cars closed at  12:30  Asked to rate people of opposite sex 1­10  Also how would you rate members of own sex?  Ratings of opposite sex increased  Ratings of own sex not affected  Others studied show not due to alcohol  Scarcity  Scarcity­ when things are in limited supply (rare), value goes up o Unilever shampoo (in Lindstrom’s Buy­ology)  Put “contains X9 factor” on bottle as a joke  When later removed from label, got complaints o Sales examples: car commercials (they’re going fast), fast food (limited time), black  Friday shopping o Scarcity & competition  Scheduled to see apartment: 5 other couples there to make you feel like you  need to make a decision and buy quickly  Liking  o No surprise we are persuaded by people we like o What kind of people do we like?  Similarity­ people prefer candidates (Bush vs Kerry) when own faces are  morphed with them (but only moderates). Also, people asked to do favor (read  and critique essay)­ 2x as likely when shared birthday (Yee)   Physical attractiveness­ we are all more persuaded by attractive people  Lower bails, less likely to be found guilty, more likely to win elections  Car with attr woman is rated as “faster and more appealing”  Good feelings  99 German students: how do you know you like someone? “you feel  good when they are around”  Optimism  People who feed us  People don’t like being controlled and may rebel  Psychological Reactance o Karl Pearson at Cambridge (1880s)  Went to dean and said “I can’t abide by this requirement that I attend Chapple  everyday” dean said okay I’m not going to force you. Dean notices Pearson  sitting in Chapple   We have the same reaction to heavy­handed influence attempts like those we’ve discussed  Compliance may not yield attitude change  Dissonance required “insufficient justification”  Let’s switch to “persuasion” via “central” route, which may evoke less  reactance  Central Route Persuasion­ How can we get people to think before making up mind? o Focus on conscious attitudinal change o Central route= mindful­ness= thinking o Characteristics of Messenger (s)  Who is persuasive?  “credible” (believable)= expert + trustworthy, also eye contact, lack of  hesitation, not persuading  If arguments run contrary to expectations  “similar/likeable” are also persuasive (especially on values/tastes) but  not always mindful  “multiple sources (communicators)” maybe mindful if decision  independent but maybe social proof  What makes a message persuasive? o a.) Get attention, b.) understandable, c.) convincing, d.) memorable, e.) compelling  (motivate behavior) o What affects these?  Logic (reason) vs Emotional  Reason is more “central”, but not always most persuasive   Humor (a) + (d), but mindful? Recall: good feelings  Fear can be powerful mechanism (a)+(e) –if give “solution” (or generate  helplessness)  Repetition  Repeated information is more believable (c)+(d)  Sleeper effect (even discredited )   Relevant messages (a)  Study: college students read messages about possibility of creating a  graduation exam. Given either weak arguments (other schools have) or  strong arguments (insure future jobs) Also: some people told it wouldn’t  start for 10 years (low relevance), others were told it would start next  year so they would have to take it (high relevance). They measured their  agreement. Strong agreement when relevance is high and low agreement  when relevance is low.  2­ sided  If the audience is well­informed, likely to hear the other side, or against  you, present both sides of the argument.   If two sides are being presented, by you, or someone else (as in a debate), should you present your “target” message first or last?­ first because of  primacy effect (what you see first is more impressionable and given more weight)  1­sided if the audience is with you  Order of presentation (c)+(d)  Present first  However, present last if there’s a long time­lag o Mode (channel) of Persuasion  Person­to­person is typically most persuasive­ but not always mindfully (+not  cost­effective)  Media (TV/radio) also influences  Two step process (media effects “leaders” who affect others)  Step 1 may be mindful, but perhaps not step 2  Don’t discount written words  Written is effective for complex/diff messages o Characteristics of the Audience/Situation: what type of audiences most persuaded?  Younger audiences (mindful or liberal?)  Intelligent and hi in cognition audience persuaded via “thinking”  How can we promote “mindful­ness” or thinking in an audience?  Minimize distractions  Get them active/involved: how? ­ Asking questions (even rhetorical) and allowing time for  thought. ­ Generating reflection/discussion (in groups) ­ Make people responsible for evaluation of points (ex: give a  list of arguments and have them check them off as you go  through them) ­ Lewin (1943) w/ M. Mead: WWII Organ Meats studies – can  we get americans to eat other cuts of meat so we can send the  good meat to the military. Nutritionists talked to groups of  people and talked about the value and talk about how you  could use them in meals and encouraged them to try it. The  lectures were affective about 10% of the time. in another  condtion: divide audience up into groups that would have  discussions about how they could use these meats in the meals and the nutritionists would just offer opioion. Over half of  these groups tried these meats. 


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