History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #7
History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #7 History 1302
Popular in History of the U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Professor Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see History of the U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
History 1302 October 3, 2016 Professor Ramirez Lecture Notes KEY TERMS KEY INFORMATION KEY PEOPLE American Foreign Intervention American Presidents took greater interest inthe foreign policyof other countries beginning with Roosevelt Greater intervention in foreign countries Theodore Roosevelt “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” o He was often fond of saying this phrase o American diplomacy must be backed up withthe threat of military force Justification for Intervention o Justified for numerous reasons: Discipline nations Restore order Prevent European intervention Civilized vs. Uncivilized nations o Civilized nations = Anglo-Saxon nations, Teutonic nations o Uncivilized nations = non-white nations, Slavic nations Panama o Intervened militarily o Panama was part of Colombia, providedmilitary aid to rebels in searchof independence from Colombia Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Increased foreign investment o In Latin America o Provided justification for the US to intervene in Latin America in order to protect these foreign investments American Intervention to protect investments Nicaragua o Invested here, revolt against the pro-US government, military forces were sent to protect those who were pro-US-government and prevent it from being overthrown Also intervened: o Cuba o Mexico o Haiti o Dominican Republic o Puerto Rico o Virgin Islands o Venezuela Wilson’s Foreign Policy Not much interest or experience before becoming president o University president for Princeton priorto become the President of the United States Characteristics of Wilson’s Policy o Moralistic – saw things in terms of right and wrong, made it difficult for Wilson to compromise o Missionary – believed the US had anobligation to export democracy to foreign countries Mexico o Intervened during the Mexican Revolution Wilson’s Policy toward Mexico Porfirio Diaz (Profiriato, 1876-1911) o Ruled Mexico during 1876-1911 o Established himself as dictator of Mexico – his reign was call profiriato o Francisco Madero initiallyled the revolution The revolution was very blood ~10% of the Mexican population diedin this war Elected to presidency following the revolution Later overthrown by Victoriano Huerta who assassinated Madero and established a military dictatorship in Mexico This angered Wilson and he was searching for a reasonto employ military intervention in Mexico Tampico – US personnel taken and later releasedwith an apology o Was not enough for Wilson, wanted a 21 gun salute towards the American flag o A battle occurred because Huerta would not do this o Later, Huerta resigned from the presidency Objectives for Mexican government: o Constitutional government o Responsive to socialand economic needs o Responsive to Wilson’s leadership o Liberty and land reform A failure o The foreign policy failedbecause the Mexicans didnot want interference from the US o Created bitterness betweenMexico and the US The Great War (WW1, referredto at the time as the Great War) Most destructive war of the time o 9 million dead Modern Weapons o Helped contribute to the mass casualty o Airplanes, machine guns, poison gas, tanks, submarines, land mines Different experience for US o US entered the war 2.5 years after the war began o Its involvement lasted 18 months roughly, verybrief Impacted on American Society o Produced intolerance, fear of radicalism,xenophobia (hostility or a fear of immigrants/foreigners) o Produced disillusionment so that by 1920 Progressivismwas dead The Road to War European Alliances o Triple Entente Britain, France, and Russia o Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary killedby Serbiannationalist in Sarajevo o The event that ignited the war o Sarajevo is part of the Austria-Hungary empire o Serbians in Bosnia who wanted Bosnia to separate from the Austria-Hungary empire and become part of Serbia o Austria-Hungary and Germany decide to invade Serbia following the assassination of the Archduke; Serbia requests aid from Russia o Germany declares war on Russia and France, England declaredwar on Germany The Combatants General Powers o Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Allies o Russia, Britain, France, Italy, and US Wilson’s Stance Initially he favored neutrality but he alsosympathized with Great Britain Some Americans favor central powers o German Americans o Irish Americans US not neutral in trade o In reality the US favored Great Britain because they were trading withthem o The American economy heavily depended on this trade with Great Britain Submarine warfare o Germany was using Submarine warfare,which partiallyprompted US involvement in the war o German established a naval blockade on England, prevented England from receiving war supplies o Lusitania Sinking of this naval base British ship, sunk by German submarines ~1200 individuals werekilled (128 Americans) o Sussex German attacked here as well 2 Americans injured during this attack a debate in the US about whether or not they should prepare for war The Road to War Preparedness vs. Pacifism o Preparedness – included Roosevelt o Pacifism (Anti-preparedness) – included Wilson, Irish and German Americans, progressives;if the US preparedfor war,the likelihood of going to war would be much more likely 1916 Election o Wilson wins this election withthe stance that he prevented war o Pacifism Unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman Telegraph o A telegraph sent by the German government to the Mexican government o Message intercepted by the British o Message caused outrage in the US, if war broke out between Germany and US then Mexico would side withGermany inorder to obtain land that was lost in the Mexican revolution TsaristGovernment overthrown o A very tyrannical and brutal monarchy overthrown by communists o Saved the US the embarrassment of fighting on the same side as the tsarist government War declare April 2, 1917 o Due to the sinking of 3 ships o Brief involvement but it didinfluence the united states “War without Stint” Initially concentrated on the sea o Destroying German submarines so that Great Britain could receive war supplies o Fairly effective – US able to sink numerous German submarines o Became clear quickly that they would need ground forces inaddition to naval forces American Expeditionary forces o Army not large enough and lacked war experience Selective service act of 1917 o A way of raising troops by means of draft o Passed despite very strong opposition o During the war 3 million were drafted and an additional 2 million volunteered Greater diversity in armed forces o First time that women servedin the military (as nurses and clericalworkers) o African Americans alsoserved(but they weresegregated and commanded by white officers) o Drove German forces out of France; Once forces reached the German border they surrendered (End of lecture for Oct. 3 ) War’s Impact on the Homefront WW1 impacted the government, the economy, and society in general (the American Homefront) Increased taxes on individuals and corporations to raise money to fund the war Liberty bonds o Loans by the American people o Mobilized the economy from peacetime to wartime; government established a relationship with big business and reliedon persuasion rather than coercion Big business reapedhigh profits War industries Board o Objectives Coordinate purchases of war goods Set prioritiesand production Allocated raw materials for the war effort Ordered construction and fixed prices Food Administration o Increased food production for the war effort o Encouraged the American population to conserve food Railroad administration o Directed railroadtraffic for the war effort Labor and the war War Labor Board o Created by the government to deal withlabor issues o An agency that pressured employers to grant concessions to workers 8 hour day Equal pay for women Right of workers to organize and bargain collectively Right to decent wages o In doing so, workers would give up the right to strike inorder to receive these concessions. o Union membership increasedduring the war o After the war ended, these concessions were no longer present The Peace Movement Many Americans objected to American participationin this war Objected to US Participation o Irish Americans o German Americans Quakers and Mennonites o These two groups are pacifists IWW and Socialistparty o Left wing organizations o Both believed that the war was being fought to benefit bankers and industrialists o Women very active in the peace movement Settling the War and Crushing Dissent Government Relied on persuasion and coercion Propaganda o An example of persuasion o Committee on public information (CPI) Printed literature for the war (pro-war) Produced pro-warposters that often depicted Germans as being savages Accused Germans of committing atrocities (some that they had never done) Encouraged enlistment into the military as well as protection of information within the military Created films to encourage support for the war o Press collaborated with the government (published articles about the war, practiced self-censorship) Coercion o Forcing Americans to support the war o Espionage act of 1917 Allowed the post office to remove material that it considered to be seditious Ex. If literature suggested the war was being fought to help big business, it was removed from circulation o Sabotage and sedition acts of 1918 For spying, sabotage, and interference with the war effort Made it illegal to criticize the government or the war effort Political prisoners – jailedsimply because they opposed the war, they remained in jaileven after the war Still in effect today Blacks and the War The war impacted African Americans as well “Great Migration” o Hundreds of thousands of AA left the countryside in the south and headed north o 1910-1920: ~1/2 millionAfrican Americans left the south Escaped poverty, disfranchisement, racism, and violence Looking for jobs Consequences of WWI o Created a labor shortage o African Americans sought jobs in other industries Heavy industry, steel plants, car factories, meat packing factories/plants o Restricted to unskilled labor that resulted in low wages o Women restricted to domestic work Military service o Stationed in the US (military reluctant to send them into combat) Fear of retribution If they fought overseas it would convey that they were equal to whites Didn’t want to encourage equal rights 1919 over 70AA were lynched in the south and many of these were returning veterans o Segregated o Commanded by white officers Racial tensions of 1919 o Racial riots, most serious occurred in Chicago in 1919 o Began when an AA teenager was swimming in lake Michigan and drifted to a white beach, they stoned him and he drowned o White mobs formed and they attacked AA homes and neighborhoods o 38 killed (13 white, 25 AA), lasted for a full week Marcus Garvey o One of the most important leaders during the 1910s and 1920s o Born in Jamaica and migrated to the US o Had substantial support from poor urban African Americans o He was a black nationalist o Encouraged AA to take pride in their heritage and rejectedassimilation o Advocated the back to Africa movement Encouraged AA to leave the US and settle in Africa o UNIA – United Negro Improvement Association He was the creator of this organization Created a chain of blackowned businesses Convicted of business fraud and eventually deported Women and the War Labor shortage during the WW, so large numbers of women entered the labor market Increased demand for women workers o Heavy industry, transportation, clericalwork o Temporary advances – once the war ended these women were often dismissed/fired Entered traditional male work Advances temporary Mexicans and the War Large scale immigration o 1910-1919: 185,000 Mexicans migrated to the US Push-Pull Factors o Pushed out of Mexico Peasants were losing their lands to railroadsand haciendas (large ranches or large farms) Mexico was suffering from food shortages Escaping the violence of the Mexican revolution o Pulled into the US Availabilityof jobs in the united states 1917 Immigration Act o First significant barrierto Mexican immigration to the US Established a literacytest for prospective immigrants ages 16+ (had to be literate in a language) Established an $8 head tax ($8 per person migrating to the US), many Mexicans livingin poverty couldn’t afford this tax o Those who couldn’t meet these two requirements often entered the US without proper documentation o Due to the labor shortages, many employers pleadedthe government to exempt Mexicans from this law and so they did Exempt from the act until 1921 o Rumors in Mexican communities that the migrants were about to be drafted, this led to many Mexican Americans leaving the US This made the labor shortage even more acute Employed in railroads,meat packing, and other industry Fear of draft o Fear of cultural contamination and biological contamination It would prevent the spreadof disease to prevent contact with them o Forced to bathe, put in crowdedrooms, and doused withchemicals (kerosene and vinegar) to clean them Expansion of industry requiredlaborers employed as cheap labor o Migrated to Chicago o Employed in railroads,meat packing, and other industries o El Paso was the largest entry point of Mexicans entering the US These Mexicans were largely employed as cheap labor in construction Sarcos – copper smelters employed large numbers of Mexicans Abolished in 1921 Fourteen Points President Wilson’s plan for after the war (his global vision) o He did not want vengeance o War was an opportunity to create a better world Self-determination Open diplomacy, freedom of seas,removal of trade barriers,and arms reduction League of Nations o Wilson favored the creation of this organization o Responsibilities: Enforcing these points Resolving disputes among nations Wilson headed to France to negotiate the treaty, both France and Britainrejected most of these 14 points; they demanded reparations and punishment for Germany (because they began the war), also wanted to keep Germany weak (to prevent the start of another war) Treaty of Versailles o Treaty that ended WW1 o 1919 o Concession from France and Britain to create the League of Nations Senators believedthe war was a mistake and we should have minded our own business Wilson failed to convince Americans to support the treaty Ratification o Senate never ratified this treaty resulting inthe US not joining the League of Nations The US in Turmoil Recession o Suffered in the US after the war Due to the fact that the war ended sooner than expected Labor Unrest (1919) o Wages were not keeping up with inflation o Job insecurity o Concessions granted to workers during the war were eliminated o Seattle General Strike National Guard calledto keep order to the city but it would fail o Boston Police Strike Police wanted recognition of their labor union Looting and violence inBoston National Guard calledupon Entire police force was fired o Steelworkers Strike ~350,000 individuals struck Wanted an 8 hr day and recognition of their labor union Employers used strike breakers and caused the strike to fail Largest strike in history RedScare Many Americans had come to the conclusion that the US about to be taken over by communists (End of lecture for Oct. 5 )
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