GLG 171 - Earthquake Notes 9/29
GLG 171 - Earthquake Notes 9/29 GLG 171 - 003
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Notetaker on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GLG 171 - 003 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Kevin Mickus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Environmental Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Earthquake Class Notes - Generated by sudden movement of rocks within the Earth. - Usually occur along faults, but can be due to magma movement also. Fault Types - Different kinds depend on their movement - 3 main types: 1. Normal Fault- Due to tensional forces (Divergent) Found along mid ocean ridges and continental faults Pull apart 2. Reverse Fault- Due to compressional force (Convergent) Found in ocean/ocean faults and continent/continent fault Push together 3. Strike Slip Fault- Two plates slide past each other ( Transform) Shear Force Ex) San Andreas Theory On How Earthquakes Form: - Elastic Rebound Theory – How energy is stored in rocks Form in solid elastic type rocks (When force is applied rocks will bend (deform) without breaking). - Like a rubber band - Elastic Limit: Breaking point= earthquakes - How it works: Rocks will bend until its strength is exceeded and break suddenly, When this happens it releases energy quickly causing an earthquake. The rocks then rebound to an undeformed shape. Terms: - Epicenter: Location of earthquake on surface - Hypocenter: Location in the Earth where the quake actually happens. Directly below the Epicenter on surface. Also called the FOCUS. Recording - Earthquakes are recorded on a SEISMOMETER - The recording is called a SEISMOGRAM - Amplitude recorded by wave HEIGHTH - Time recorded by WIDTH of wave Seismic Waves - Wave: a process that carries the energy from one point to another without moving material to that point. (Deforming rock as it goes by). 1. P Waves (Primary or Compression) - Moves like a soundwave - Like a series of compression and dilations - Energy moves in same direction as wave deformation - fastest wave (Waves move faster the denser the object is) - Goes through ALL material: solid, liquid, gas - Amplitude is low (Not damaging) 2. S Waves (Secondary or Shear) - Tndvel like waves on a rope or string - 2 fastest wave - Occur in crust at a slower speed -Will ONLY travel through solid material (Which is why we know the outer core is liquid) -Usually low amplitude also 3. Surface Waves - Travel along a surface like Earth -Rayleigh – Most common wave Travels in ellipses Particle motion is opposite to energy propagation direction (like water waves) Slowest Wave Travels in ALL materials **Largest Amplitude – DAMAGE**
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