Chapter 2 Art of the Ancient Near East
Chapter 2 Art of the Ancient Near East ART 2050-001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
2 Art of the Ancient Near East Monday, August 31, 2015 9:16 AM • Civilizations grew along major rivers and bodies of water ○ Fertile • Ancient Mesopotamiaand Sumer • We learn more about their religion in studying here ○ Polytheistic ○ Protection ○ Art work created in the service of religion & power • Organized society ○ Warriors, workers, farmers, leaders • Cuneiform ○ Writing on clay tablets using a sharp stylus ○ Wrote literature The Epic of Gilgamesh ART 2050 Page 1 Anu Ziggurat and White Temple, Uruk, c. 3300-3000BCE • Temple to Anu • 2 aspects ○ The temple itself ○ Lower base or platform called the ziggurat Platform or pedestal for a temple Raise the temple to the sky Goddess Inanna Male consort ritual marriage Ensured a good year Temple and offerings Row of people carrying cornucopias and offerings Rams and ewes ART 2050 Page 2 Rams and ewes plants Carved Vessel, Uruk c. 3300-3000 BCE • Low relief sculpture • Importance? ○ Subject matter Religious meaning? Illustrated ritual ○ Found in a temple area ○ Complex but legible Rather than just animals everywhere,there is even spacing and levels Similar to reading ○ Uses scale to show status Votive Figures, Square Temple, Eshnunna, c. 2900-2600BCE • Votive--offeringgiven in thanksgiving • Men and womencould set up images of themselvesin the temple ○ Stand-ins waiting perpetually for the god or goddess • Similar features ○ Large eyes ○ Stylized hair and beard ○ Tar-like substance to paint beard and eyes black ○ Clasped hands • Scale ○ Larger figure = god? ○ There are many different levels of the scale By class and $$$ ART 2050 Page 3 By class and $$$ Head of a Woman (Warka Head), 3300-3000BCE • Almost the same size as a human head ○ Slightly more naturalistic in the lips • Clean cut neck ○ Either not meant to be a statue ○ Or the body of the statue was made from another material • The material for this was something rare at the time ○ Eyes were probably crystals ○ Mark in the top of the head possibly for a wig • Goddess mostlikely Sir Leonard Woolley • City of Ur ○ Royal tombs ART 2050 Page 4 Great Lyre with Bull's Head, Royal tomb, Ur, 2500-2500 BCE • The blue of the beard is a stone more expensive than gold • Sound box on front of bull Sound box • Strange ○ Human headed animals in the first box ○ Animals doing human things in 2nd and 3rd ○ Man with a scorpion body in 4th • Part of the epic of Gilgamesh? • The lyres were part of funerals ART 2050 Page 5 • Full thing Head of a Man (Akkadian ruler) 2300-2200 • Archaeologiststhink it is a ruler in Akkad • importance ○ There's a lot of detail in it ○ It's made of copper Metal casting is not easy • Damage ○ An enemy took this and damaged it It wasn’t something that happened recently It happened in antiquity ○ Eyes gouged out ○ Ears cut off ART 2050 Page 6 Stele of Naram-Sin, 2254-2218BCE • Stele ○ Kind of like tombstones ○ Sort of for documentation • Depicts Naram-Sin ○ Started conquering Mesopotamia ○ Historical battle ○ Shows power ○ Hierarchic scale Naram-Sin is bigger than anyone else ○ Inscriptions above him that has faded; inscription on rock added later on • 6'6" tall Akkadian empire fell around 2180 to the Guti • Neo-sumerian period Sumerians gained back control under the leadership of King Urnammu Nanna Ziggurat, Ur, 2100-2050BCE • 1000 years later than the first ziggurat • To the moon goddess • Much more well-preserved ○ Baked bricks • 205 feet by 141 feet and 50 feet tall • 3 staircases that convergeand meet at the top ART 2050 Page 7 Votive Statue of Gudea, 2090 BCE • The Gutis took over the Akkadian empire • Gudea ○ Many statues of Gudea found around ○ Strong peaceful leader ○ Depicted holding temple plans and life-giving water • 29" tall Mesopotamiareunited by the Amorites • Capital: Babylon Leader Hammurbi Stele of Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE, 28" tall • Not a story ○ It's a law code ○ For "justice" to prevail ○ Most of them deal with commercialissues Break a boat you buy a boat ○ Some are domestic Cheat on your husband get thrown in the river • Hammurabi aside the god Shamash ○ Shamash is bigger (but seated) ○ Handing Hammurabi a staff (the god's will) People coming from outside of Mesopotamia • Hittites ART 2050 Page 8 • Hittites ○ Capital: Hattushash ○ Important in metal working Possibly who brought about iron working ○ Architecture for their rulers Lion Gate, Hattusha, 1400 BCE • Citadel at the capital for the leader • Strong foundations with brick build on top of it ○ The foundation is what is left ○ "cycoslean"architecture huge • Lions carved to look like they're walking out of the rock Assyrians • Ruled their people with an iron fist ○ Which led to many revolts • A lot of informationon the Assyrians ○ They created many relief sculptures ○ Many stories and records on the Assyrians Enemies Crossing the Euphrates to Escape Assyrian Archers, Palace complexof Assurnasirpal II, Kalhu, 875-860 BCE • Assurnasirpal II was very powerful • Viewpoints are all over the place ART 2050 Page 9 Citadel and Palace Complex of Sargon II, 721-706 BCE • Sargon I is not Assyrian • Sargon II is Assyrian • Layout of the citadel ○ One way in, one way out ○ Hundreds of rooms for warriors and officials ○ Designed to be defensive to protect the king Guardian Figures, Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, 721-706 • Outside of the halls that lead to the king there are usually guardian figures • Lamassu ○ Supernatural guardian-protectorof ancient Near Eastern palaces and throne rooms, often represented sculpturally as a combination of the bearded head of a man, powerful body of a lion or bull, wings of an eagle, and the homed headdress of a god, usually possessing five legs. Bearded head of a man Powerful body of a lion or bull □ 5 legs Wings of an eagle Horned headdress of a god Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions, Palace Complex of Assurnasirpal II, Kalhu, 875-860BCE • Showing his power and skill • Detailed process of the lion hunts • Less formal quality than previous art ○ Higher level of narrative quality and detail Babylonians came to power again ART 2050 Page 10 Babylonians came to power again • Nebuchadnezzar ○ Wanted to restore Babylon to its former glory and further Ishtar Gate • Ishtar is a god • Glazed brick ○ Images of dragons and lions Paved road called the "ProcessionalWay" • 66' wide in some places Marduk Ziggurat in the distance • East bank of the Euphrates Persians gained power of Mesopotamia • Persepolis ○ Alexander the Great destroyedit when he got to it CeremonialComplex, Persepolis,Iranc ART 2050 Page 11 Apadana (Audience Hall), of Darius and Xerxes,Ceremonial Complex,Persepolis, Iranc, 518-460 • When the persians conquered the people Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute, Apadanna, Persepolis, Iran, 491-486 • When they conquered people they let them carry about their ways ○ Led to less revolts ○ Led to more loyalty • Xerxes is Darius's son ART 2050 Page 12
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