Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt
Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
3 Art of Ancient Egypt Wednesday, September 9, 20158:57 AM • Settlements growing along the Nile ○ Growing together • Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt ○ North -- Lower Egypt ○ South -- Upper Egypt ○ (because the Nile flows north) ART 2050 Page 1 Rosetta Stone • Same text written in 3 different languages: 1. Hieroglypichs 2. Demotic (languages used by ordinary people--appeared in the 7th century BCE) 3. Greek • With this it made it easier to decrypt all 3 languages • Doesn’t say anything interesting ○ Just a decree Egyptian afterlife • Funerary services • They provide the body with things that they would need to live on • Ka would continue living on in the afterlife but it would need somewhereto go ○ Ka (soul?) ○ So they started doing mummification ○ If the body were desecrated the ka could embody a sculpture • A lot of money, time, and preparation went into preparing for the afterlife ○ As soon as a pharaoh comes into power, his tomb begins construction • Mummification process ○ Take out organs ○ Take out brain through the nose Thought it was useless ○ Soak the body ○ Bandages ART 2050 Page 2 • canopic jars of neskhons ○ Jars they put the organs in The Palette of Narmer, 2950 BCE, Early Dynastic • Hierarchic scale ○ Narmer is slaying someone of similar size Important enemy ○ Sandal-bearer Narmer must be barefoot on sacred ground • Hieroglyphic ○ At the top there is a fish and chisel which is the name (Narmer) • Crown ○ Narmer is wearing the upper egypt crown on the first side ○ Narmer is wearing the lower egypt crown on the second side ○ Unification of upper and lower egypt? • Decapitated bodies ART 2050 Page 3 • Decapitated bodies ○ Enemies • Palette ○ They used these objects to mix their eye makeup Hence the deep circular groove ○ (this one probably was more ceremonial) • Style ○ A mix of natural poses and repetitive poses ○ Clean cut and no background Easy to understand ○ Composite views Legs profile Body frontal Face profile Eyes frontal ○ System of proportions "royal fist" □ No idea what it means □ But like building blocks Mastaba ART 2050 Page 4 ART 2050 Page 5 Step Pyramid and Sham Building, Djoser's Funerary Complex, Saqqara, 2630-2575BCE • First large scale tomb built for a pharaoh • First large stone monument in world history ○ Ziggurats were made of mud bricks so they don’t count • Cut out of stone • Imhotep ○ First known architect ○ Second in command from the pharaoh ○ Office in Vizier • They had finished the mastaba before the pharaoh had died ○ So they just kept building on top of it ○ 200 feet tall; 90 feet deep Djoser's Funereary Complex, Saqqara, 2630-2575BCE • First monumental stone work • As big as Yankee stadium • Wall surrounding is limestone and 30 feet tall VIDEO Djoser • First ruler to be considered an actual god • The people thought he had discovered stone ○ His funerary complex would be built from stone rather than mud bricks • Imhotep ○ Djoser's right hand man ○ Architect, vizier, etc. ○ Build the grandest mastaba • Decided to build his tomb in Saqqara • Built by "slaves" ○ They were paid in food, beer, and tax breaks Women were drafted to keep these men healthy and clothed ART 2050 Page 6 ○ Women were drafted to keep these men healthy and clothed • construction ○ Burial shaft 23 feet wide and 90 feet deep ○ A sort of shaft to actually lower the body through ○ There was a second identical tomb not far within the mastaba For the organs ○ Maze of tunnels 4 miles of hidden passageways ○ Dozens of rooms for Djoser's relatives' bones Coffin made of pure alabaster ○ The mastaba was his true palace • Getting the stone ○ Pounding the rock into grooves ○ Making huge slabs of stone • Djoser's rule ○ He opened up trade that brought in turquoise and copper • They decided that they wouldn’t stop the tomb until Djoser was dead ○ They kept building layers on top of layers (4 layers; 6 steps) ○ 20 stories high ○ First stone columns 33 feet high Attached to a side wall so they wouldn’t fall □ Didn’t know they could be freestanding • Djoser 2667-2648 Great Pyramids, Giza, 2575-2450BCE • Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu ART 2050 Page 7 • Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu • Temple for preparing the body attached • Organized by the cardinal points ○ They are faced north, east, south, and west ○ Possibly by constellations too • Khafre's temple is the second largest ○ The sphinx is by the temple of Khafre • Khufu's is the biggest ○ 450 feet tall ○ 13 acres at the base ○ 2 and a half tons per brick • Construction ○ They wet the sand so they could slide sleds across the sand to transport the bricks ○ Possibly a ramp was made to bring the bricks to the top ○ It looks rough now but back in the day it would've been gilded with smaller bricks and at the top be gilded with metals • Subterranean tunnels ○ Then they started building tunnels within the actual pyramind ○ Lots of tunnels Possibly to fool grave robbers? Or air shafts Who knows. Khafre 2540-2494BCE • If the body was desecrated in the tomb then the ka would take over a sculpture • His pyramid was the 2nd to be built • Sitting atop a throne with all the dressings of a pharaoh ○ Horus Eagle protector behind his head • Looks very stiff and strong ○ Idealized? Probably didn’t look exactly like it ART 2050 Page 8 Menkaure and a Queen, Perhaps Khamerenebty II, 2490-2472 BCE • Smallest pyramid belonged to Menkaure • There's no open spaces so that it won't fall ART 2050 Page 9 • There's no open spaces so that it won't fall Seated Scribe, 2450-2325BCE • Instead of being made out of very hard stone this one is made out of limestone and then also painted ○ Men were painted with reddish paint ○ Women were painted with white paint • Scribes were a coveted position ○ They were educated ○ Passed down from father to son • Difference between pharaoh sculpture ○ More relaxed ○ Less "powerful" ○ Doesn’t look as beautiful or athletic Butcher, Tomb of official Ni-kau-inpu, 2450-2345BCE • They would set up small statues within the tomb to provide for the ka in the afterlife • Image in action ○ So much more naturalistic than the images of the pharaoh ART 2050 Page 10 ○ Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, Tomb of Ti, Saqqara, 2450-2325BCE • Grooves are supposed to represent a papyrus grove ○ Where you would hunt • Hunting was a popular scene ○ It was somethingthat a person would have done in their lifetime ○ Being successful at the hunt was "overcomingevil" Or overcomingdeath Hippopotamus were considered evil □ They were a symbol of chaos □ They would hurt people and eat things • Not a pharaoh but portrayed almost like one ○ He's a government official Head of Senusret III, 1836-1818BCE • Time of chaos ○ Government officials became more powerful ○ Power of the pharaoh was questioned • Intermediate period (middle kingdom) 1975-1640BCE • Pharaoh Senusret III ○ Successful pharaoh ○ Got control over the nobility again • Comparison of the old age and the middle age Senusret looks more worn and stressed than an idealistic pharaoh ○ Bags under the eyes ART 2050 Page 11 Bags under the eyes No smile Sunken cheekbones Furrowed brow Probably to show the state of mind of a pharaoh ○ Because of the recent overturning they had to stay strong Rock-cut Tombs, Beni Hasan, 1938-1756BCE • New types of tombs ○ Cut out of rock ○ Started being a thing of more unknown officials Eventually pharaohs adopted it ○ Best preserved tombs • Walls were either carved in low relief or painted Stele of the Sculptor Userwer, 1850 BCE • Unfinished ○ He died before he could finish it? ○ Shows the ink where he sketched it out The grid system for proportions • Funerary practice ○ Only the elite could have a tomb made but peasants could have these made ○ Offering to/from the afterlife • Ideology ○ Userwer sitting at a table with his wife and being given offerings Translates to asking for offerings in the afterlife ART 2050 Page 12 ○ Translates to asking for offerings in the afterlife Plan of pylon temple • Middle kingdom falls and the new kingdom comes into plan ○ Greatest time for expansion for Egypt's pharaohs • Thutmose III • Pylon ○ The gateway themselves ○ • Hypostyle hall ○ Hall of columns ○ Rooved • Sanctuary ART 2050 Page 13 • Sanctuary Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, 1579-1075BCE • As big as a dozen football fields Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, 1292-1190BCE • The center 2 columns are higher than any other columns • Clerestory level ○ Window level ○ They rose up the walls so that they could add windows ○ Letting light into the building ART 2050 Page 14 Hatshepsut Kneeling, 1473-1458BCE • She's a woman pharaoh • Probably the most powerful woman ever ○ She ruled Egypt when it was at its most powerful for 2 decades ○ Her father was Thutmose I She had pharaoh blood ○ She becomes a regent ○ Her father dies She says that her father wanted her to be pharaoh She becomes pharaoh • A lot of her statues are damaged ○ Thutmose III had all image of her removed Confused as to why Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, 1473-1458BCE • Not where she is buried ○ She's buried in the temple of the kings • This is where she would have worshiped her favorite deities ○ And where people could worship her ART 2050 Page 15 ○ Colossal figure of Akhenaten, 1353-1336BCE • Name ○ Father was Amenhotep III ○ His name was Amenhotep IV ○ Changed it when he became pharaoh ○ Akhenaten Has to do with the sun He wiped out all religion except for the sun one • Most unusual pharaoh in history • Looks completely different from any other sort of depiction of a pharaoh ○ Androgynous Feminine with hips and narrow shoulders and narrow face ○ Body type is not athletic or youthful Pouchy bellies ○ Possibly because of inbreeding he had a physical deformity? • Akhenaten wipes out all the deities ○ Pisses people off ○ Had to move the capital • Brings about a new time of art ○ Amarna style ○ Informal Akhenaten and his Family, 1353-1336BCE • Much less formal • "amarna style" ART 2050 Page 16 • "amarna style" ○ Consistently weird • Akhenaten, his wife Nefertiti, and their 3 daughters Queen Tiy, 1352 BCE • Actually a very tiny bust • Akhenaten's mother • Very determined woman Nefertiti, 1353-1336BCE • Akhenaten's wife • One eye isn't filled in ○ It was never finished ○ It was in the studio of the artist The artist's name was Thutmose ○ This specific bust was a model for more So she would have a consistent look • Catscan ○ There's a layer beneath the top on that makes her look older ART 2050 Page 17 Tutankhamun (Tut) • 1332-1322BCE • Akhenaten's son • Tut reverted back everything that Akhenaten changed • He was crowned pharaoh as a young boy • Died at about age 18 or 19 • His tomb was the only one archaeologists have found unplundered ○ Everything was still there • 3 layers of coffins and inside a sarcophagus ○ Sarcophagus made of solid gold Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun, 1332-1322 BCE • Back to the art of before amarna Ramses II ART 2050 Page 18 Ramses II Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, 1279-1213BCE • This temple was dedicated to Ramses and the gods • 4 statues of Ramses II • Inside there are statues of Ramses as Osiris In the 1960s • Removal of the face of one of the colossal sculptures of Ramses II at Abu Simbel in the mid-1960s • There was flooding and it would have been submerged underwater • So they sort of took it apart and moved it Judgement of Hunefer Before Osiris, Book of the Dead, 1285 BCE • Guide for the dead • After a person dies they must go through a test ○ Heart must be weighed against the feather of truth • Anubis leading the deceased • Presented to Osiris if they pass • 14 gods of the underworld • Osiris's 4 sons ○ The ones that decorate the Canopic jars ART 2050 Page 19
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