Week 11: Lippmann and Conservative Media
Week 11: Lippmann and Conservative Media JMC:1200:0AAA
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Thursday April 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1200:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Frank Durham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Media History and Culture in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 04/02/15
Lecture 17 Walter Lippmann Today s Question How did Walter Lippmann seek to modernize the press What was Lippmann s understanding ofjournalistic objectivity What were the problems of commercial press in presenting Truth How did Lippmann s position on forming public opinion differ from Bernays Points of Comparison Lippmann o Tweed Case used evidence to indite corruption 0 Scientific method of comparison 0 Investigative reporting Times and Harpers in Tweed case 0 Wanted to take the reader of the news away from individual opinion and put it into a social context 0 Scientific approach to evidence gt truth Walter Lippmann 18891974 First media theorist Democracy would not be possible without the scientific approach to evidence The press had to be able to report from the macro level to the micro level Outline Lippmann s biography Traditionalism vs Modernism science Lippmann Modernizing the Press Conclusion Lippmann s Biography 1908 Forms Socialist Club at Harvard 0 Doesn t remain affiliated with socialists 0 Sampling experience 1910 Reporter for Boston Common 0 Only time he was ever a reporter 0 Later became an opinion writer and editor 0 Goes to work for Lincoln Steffens 1913 Progressivemuckraker o Cofounds the New Republic 1914 WI begins 1917 US enters WI 0 Works for wartime propaganda Creel Commission 0 Sees what propaganda is doing to recruit and the tensions between Irish and British problems for German immigrants manipulation of public opinion based on nativism and fear and prejudice o Contrubutes to who he is as a media theorist as he is turned off by this 1918 War ends o Ends his experience with Wilson administration 0 Trying to find peace not victoryfix o Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Conference Very unfair Thought there would be a second world war and there was 1919 Lippman resigns from the Army 0 Returns to New York 1920 Vanity Fair column 0 A Test of the News analysis of Russian revolution Found that NY Times was very bias Predicted loss of Russian revolution No matter what happened in the war they reported a loss 0 Critique Liberty and the News 1922 New York World Public Opinion 0 Analysis of political theory 1925 The Phantom Public 0 Doubting if the American individual is competent or capable of Democracy 0 Wanted journalism to bridge the gap 0 Harsh that Americans are paying any attention 1931 The World ends Today and Tomorrow begins in the NY Heraldn and in syndication for 30 years 0 Americans were reading these books Why Lippmann differed from Bern s Journalism not public relations A different use of media to connect individuals to a democratic society 0 Different versions of democracy theories concepts 0 Propose a way that American democracy can reform itself Unity using the news to link the pictures in our heads stereotypes 0 Didn t want us to rely on previous ideas like nativism Traditionalism vs Science or Modernism quotThe ideological difference between traditionalist and modernists depended on a common assumption That each held the keys to unifying the country Traditional Ways of Knowing Lippmann was an atheist Didn t believe that the Bible was fact instead it was interpretation Absolute beliefs vs scientific method 0 Faith vs works Religion literal readings of the Bible evangelism fundamentalism o Believed the Bible was a factual historical account 0 Leaves science out Science for Lippmann a science based approach to reporting the news meant applying a scientific method of inquiry Traditionalism Conserving pre WWI beliefs 0 ex Religious fundamentalism Antievolutionism Nativism antilabor antiimmigrant antipapist Anticommunism antiBolshevism Lippmann s Problem Three Threats to Journalism 1 Propaganda in wartime 0 Against Wilson s retraction to civil liberties o The Espionage Act 1917 o The Sedition Act 1918 lllegal to criticize president or government 0 For Lippmann without the press the American citizens could not participate in their government or democracy 0 Threats to Truth Creel Commission Wilson Red Scare Press relations at the Paris Peace Conference 2 Private propaganda 0 Public relations Edward Bernays Herd instinct didn t think this was right Didn t think people lacked the intelligence Thought people needed the press Lacked competence to manage without the press Press agentry lvy Lee Advertisingconsumerism 3 Commercial press of the day 0 Journalist of the day were underpaid insecure anonymous form of drudgery conducted on catchascatch principles 0 Yellowjournalism still a threat 0 Wanted to help the practice ofjournalism to shape into common standards Lippmann s Solution Revising Manufacture of Consent 0 Government propaganda Double arrow 0 Journalists scientific facts Double arrow 0 Citizenreaders traditional stereotypes Wanted to insert the media between the government and citizens 0 Wanted to give them a way to evidence 0 Fact intervened traditional stereotypes fragmented stereotypes 0 Thought the news should be true not like NY Times in Russian Revolution fabricated what was going on o Bernays public relations arrow would be between stereotypes and propaganda Truth Not Propaganda There can be no liberty for a community which lacks the information by which to detect lies Lippann s View of the Press s Limitations Public Opinion 1922 pg 227228 The press is no substitute Pragmatic approach pg 16 The bible of democracy 0 Journalists take a lot of criticism 0 Without the press we are lost 0 Distinction between traditional beliefs and scientific approach to journalism The Role of Journalism Schools How far could Journalism Schools go in turning journalism from a haphazard read into a disciplined profession Quite far I imagine 0 Public Opinion 1922 pg 28 Objectivity as Scientific Method Without a common intellectual method and a common area of valid fact differences may become a form of cooperation and cease to be an irreconcilable antagonism That I think constitutes the meaning of freedom for us 0 Liberty and the News 1920 pp 2223 Conclusion Why Lippmann differed from Bernays Journalism as democratic to public relations A difference use of media to connect individuals to democratic society 0 People need a contact mediation between newspaper and everything else 0 Newspaper is an essential service Unity using the news to link the pictures in our heads stereotypes Lippmann believed in objectivity Bernays did not Exam Tip Covered every unit Larger Household article Reread the ending of this article Walter Lippmann s column that ran in ore than 250 newspapers Today and Tomorrow Lecture 18 Conservative Media in the Modern Era Preserving Traditional Values Lippmann scientifically based facts to lead to Democracy antiPR Bernays social science propaganda Neither is victor have their own paths Today s Questions What were the ideological differences between the conservatives and the modernists How did the conservative movement rise in the 1920s What role did the conservative media have in promoting and maintaining traditional values What were the characteristics of conservative media lnvolves valuebased decisions need to examine the conservation of those values Concepts for Today By the end of today s lecture you will understand the concepts of o Traditionalism o Conservatism o Fundamentalism o Modernism 0 And ways in which media were used in each context during this period Q Which is the correct statement about Bernays and Lippmann A Both believed the public to be constrained to making rational decisions Beieved that in different ways Bernays needed direction incapable of making decisions outside herdapproach Lippmann individuals were ovenvhelmed by the complexity of life and government had gotten to big and complex needed to rely on media What we know so far about modernist theories of media and democracy 1920 Comparing Bernays to Lippmann Bernays propaganda model herd instinct capitalist Lippmann Journalismbased not omnicompetent Both modernists Bernays Manufactured Consent Herd instincts assumes 0 Arrow Problem created 0 Arrow Behavioral solution consumerism prescribed 0 Arrow Unity Democracy achieved 0 Notion of democracy is up for grabs 0 Use of the word doesn t define it depends on who uses it and what they mean by it Lippmann s quotInformed Consent Government 0 Doublearrow Journalist o Doublearrow Citizen readers Agency limited assumed For Lippmann democracy depends on journalism Traditionalism A Third Way to Theorize Democracy Conserving traditional preWWI beliefs ex 0 Religious fundamentalism Biblical literalists offended at modern journalism and science 0 Antievolutionism o Nativism antilabor ANARCHY UNIT NOT ON TEST antiimmigrant antipapist Gave them a chance to dominate business and politics 0 Anticommunism Bolshevik o Antifemininsm o Antiprogressivism o Antichange Conservatism Preserving traditional values against the new threats that modernization represented to their worldview and to the power that is represented Movement organized in 1920 Fundamentalism Coined by the WatchmanExaminer1920 The bible was THE unifying source of facts for the meaning of society democracy Biblical literalism ex world created in 7 days Antievolutionist ideology Antiscientific o Challenged the way they saw the world Two Kinds of Fundamentalist Those who believed in a religionbased doctrine Those who believed in a patriotic doctrine tied to Protestantism nativism race and a belief in science versus the Progressive agenda of the muckrakers Not exclusive of each other Basic Ideological Conflict Between Conservatives and Modernists A theological definition of immanence or power and control over the future 0 For fundamentalists God was in control of the future 0 For modernists science made planning for the future possible for men 0 In this sense Lippmann s modernized journalism was kind of heresy for fundamentalists PreWar Traditional Beliefs Reinforced not replaced After the War A return to cultural normalcy Nativism o Anticommunismantilabor o AntiBolshevism Especially during Red Scare 19191920 Opperated on stereotypes Religion 0 Protestant was dominant o AntiPapism o AntiSemitism Race Ideology Gender ideology Cultural Shifts after WWI Rapid immigration 9 M to cities Decline in religiosity Popularization of science psychology sociology Decline in socialism Decline in Progressivism Rise in consumerism Return to businesscentered normalcy o 1920 Harding elected o 1924 Coolidge elected o 1928 Hoover elected o All republicans 1929 Great Depression Conservative Media Reject Journalism Wanted to keep values in place weren t looking for change 0 Work against reforms 0 Used same media pamphlets books etc as reform movements however Magazines pamphlets and brochures as sites for conservative values Not dedicated to objectivity Beliefbased not based on scientific methods of inquiry Marked by certitude rather than inquiry Conservative Media Examples Outlookmagazine Red Scare 1921 Freeman 0 The Red Scare laissezfaire economics bordered on anarchy Albert J Nock 192024 The Dearborn Independent 0 Henry Ford 192022 antiSemitism 0 Now affects many Jews that won t buy a Ford The Defender 0 Loathed modernism promoted antiSemitism the Third Reich More magazines 0 League of Women Voter s magazine The Woman Citizen 0 The Lutheran Hour 0 The KKK s Fiery Cross Published in Indianapolis Books 0 The Money Creators Gertrude Coogan 1935 antiSemtitic banking conspiracy o Eugenically Sterilization in the United States Harry Laughlin 1922 antieugenics o The Passing of Great Race Madison Grant 1916 antimiscengenation racemixing 77 ll Q What common theme did the Protocols of the Elders of Zion The International Jew and the sermons of Father Couglin aka The Radio Priest A Antisemitism Summary Traditionalists and fundamentalists vehemently opposed modernist on ideological grounds Modernists operated from their own beliefs about the nature of facts planning the role of the individual in society which can be seen as the contest to define democracy
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