Chapter 5 Art of Ancient Greece
Chapter 5 Art of Ancient Greece ART 2050-001
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5 Art of Ancient Greece Wednesday, September 30, 20159:01 AM FUNERARY KRATER • From the Dipylon Cemetery,Athens. c. 750-735BCE. Ceramic,height 42-5/8" (108 cm) MAN AND CENTAUR • Perhaps from Olympia. c. 750 BCE. Bronze, height 4-5/16" (11.1 cm). ORIENTALIZING PERIOD OLPE (PITCHER) • Corinth. c. 650-625BCE. Ceramic with black-figure decoration, height 12-7/8" (32.8 cm) ARCHAIC ART ARCHAIC ART AERIAL VIEW OF THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO, DELPHI RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO,DELPHI • 6th-3rd century BCE. • 6th-3rd century BCE. RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE TREASURY OF THE SIPHNIANS • Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c. 530-525 BCE. BATTLE BETWEEN THE GODS AND THE GIANTS • Fragments of the north frieze of the Treasury of the Siphnians, Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c. 530-525 BCE. Marble, height 26" (66 cm). Temples, Poseidonia (Paestum) Standard temple plan ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: The Greek Orders • Columns ○ Have a shaft (shaft part) ○ Have a capital (top part) ○ Grooves in the column are called "fluting" ○ Doric Does not have a base Less decorative capital ○ Ionic Has a base More decorative capital than Doric but less that Corinthian ○ Corinthian Has a base Incredibly decorativecapital with acanthus leaf • Entablature ○ The chunk above the columns ○ Consists of the architrave and frieze ○ Doric Frieze consists of a triglyph and metope ○ Ionic "continuous frieze" "continuous frieze" There are pictures that repeat like a pattern • Pediment ○ Slanted roof PLAN (A) AND EXTERIOR VIEW (B) OF THE TEMPLE OF HERA I, POSEIDONIA (ROMAN PAESTUM) • Southern Italy. c. 550-540BCE. • DORIC • Greek temple when they colonized Italy and built a city there • Hera is Zeus's wife • Temple plan ○ Extremely long and narrow ○ Awkward Makes us think that this was the first of the temples Makes us think that this was the first of the temples Columns down the middle kind of block the statue that that this temple would have been centered around TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • View from the east. c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. Column height about 17' (5.18 m) • DORIC • To a local goddess (not one of the 12 deities) • Comparison ○ Not as big ○ Becomes more refined as time goes on ○ Less swelling in the shaft ○ Capital is more refined and elegant ○ Straight edges RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. PLAN OF COMPLEX of the TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • c. 500 or c. 475 BCE. • There aren't any columns blocking the statue now ○ There are two rows of columns instead of one so that leaves a gap between the two almost as an aisle • The proportions of the length and width of the temple are better too WEST PEDIMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF APHAIA, AEGINA • c. 500-490or 470s BCE. Width about 49' (15 m). • Surviving fragments as assembled in the Staatliche Antikensammlungenund Glyptothek,Munich (early restorationsremoved). • Greeks liked to decorate the exterior of the temples with sculpture ○ The sculpture was connected to the architecture ○ Therefore most of this sculpture is called "architectural sculpture" ○ Fairly well preserved • Portraysa battle between the Greeks and the Trojans • The idea of putting art in the pediment ○ Awkward shape of a triangle ○ They would put big ones in the center and little ones in the corners ○ ^ this is the solution they've come up with The poses are altered but theyre all roughly the same size (besides Athena) DYING WARRIOR • From the right corner of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. • c. 500-490or 470s BCE. Marble, length 5'6" (1.68 m). • West Pediment (part of the temple of aphaia) DYING WARRIOR • From the left corner of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. • c. 490-480or 470s BCE. Marble, length 6' (1.83 m). ○ Idea that maybe the east and west pediment were created at different times Possible that they were made at the same time but by different workshops ○ • East Pediment (part of the temple of aphaia) Stylistic differences • Expression in the face ○ Almost smiling in the west (even though he's dying) "Archaic smile" Apparently they do this a lot Possible that they didn’t know how to carve the intricate muscles of the face ○ Pained look in the east More convincing Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann RECONSTRUCTIONOF ARCHER • From the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. 2004 CE. • We think of greek architecture and sculpture as white and crisp ○ Turns out it was painted ○ Encaustic painting (wax) on marble ARCHER ("PARIS") • From the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. c. 500-490or 470s BCE. Marble. • The same statue ○ Hole in the side where the quiver of arrows was DEVELOPMENTOF STATUES: METROPOLITANKOUROS • Attica, Greece. c. 600-590BCE. Marble, height 6'4-5/8" (1.95 m). • MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York. Fletcher Fund, 1932. (32.11.1) • "Kouros" just means athletic, youthful male ○ Used as grave markers, votive figures in temples or sanctuaries • This one was one of the earliest kouros figures ○ Over 6 feet tall Starting to create large scale life-size figures ○ • Freestanding ○ Negative space Between the arms and legs ○ It is just standing alone and stable • Nude • Greeks carved out of marble and limestone ○ Easier to carve COMPARISON TO EGYPTIAN ART Menkaure and a Queen, Perhaps Khamerenebty II, 2490-2472 BCE • There's no open spaces so that it won't fall BERLIN KORE • From the cemeteryat Keratea, near Athens. c. 570-560BCE. • Marble with remnants of red paint, height 6'3" (1.9 m). • Greeks carved both male and female ○ Male = Kouros Nude ○ Female = Kore Fully clothed • Stylized ○ Archaic smile ○ Hair ANAVYSOS KOUROS • From the cemeteryat Anavysos,near Athens. c. 530 BCE. • Marble with remnants of paint, height 6'4" (1.93 m). • From the cemeteryat Anavysos • Also called the Kroisos kouros • Also called the Kroisos kouros ○ Marked the grave of Kroisos ○ He was a warrior and they engraved a grave for him • Style ○ Becoming more natural Muscles and face shape ○ Still have the archaic smile ○ 60-70 years between this and metropolitankouros PEPLOS KORE • From the Akropolis, Athens. c. 530 BCE. Marble, height 4' (1.21 m). • Women continued to be represented • Peplos is a garment that women wear ○ Shes not actually wearing a peplos • Comparison to berlin kore ○ Same sort of differences ○ Naturalistic ○ Drapery is still stiff but actually shows the shape of the body ○ Hair falls over her shoulders ○ Looks very similar to the Anavysos Kouros Could be brother and sister • • Reconstuctionwith paint • Reconstuctionwith paint SOME STANDARD SHAPES OF GREEK VESSELS • Greeks made large scale panel paintings but none have survived • So for paintings, a lot of examples are based off of vessel painting • Amphora ○ Popular type of vessel ○ Used to store wine • Hydria ○ Used to store water • Oinochoe and olpe ○ Pitchers • Krater ○ Used for mixing • Kantharos ○ Double handed wine glass • Lekythos ○ Elegant shaped ○ Used for perfumes ○ Usually left at graves ○ Exekias (Potterand Painter) AJAX AND ACHILLES PLAYING A GAME • c. 540-530BCE. Black-figure painting on a ceramic amphora, • height of amphora 2' (61 cm). • Stunning • Greek vase painter was an esteemedposition • Usually the potter and the painter would be credited Exekias was both the potter and the painter ○ Exekias was both the potter and the painter Comparison • Consistent color ○ The red is the clay • "black figure painting" ○ Black on red/cream/somevariation thereof ○ Preferred method of decoration ○ Started at the beginning of the archaic period ○ Sometimessome purplish color or white • The black came through the firing process ○ Difficult to recreate 1. Oxidizing A slip (watered down clay) is added to the clay Wet red clay is added to red clay (hard to see) It is then fired and oxidized 2. Reducing Reducing the oxygen Smoke fills the chamber Everything turns black 3. Reoxidizing Oxygen is reintroduced The actual body of the vessel is more porous The vessel will turn back to red ○ Details would have been carved while still wet Andokides Painter “Bilingual vases” • Same figures but not by Exekias • Same figures but not by Exekias • Same vase but two sides ○ One side had the black figure technique ○ One side had the red figure technique Almost as a negative "bilingual vases" • Red Figure Technique takes over and black figure dies out Lysippides Painter HERAKLES DRIVING Andokides Painter HERAKLES A BULL TO SACRIFICE DRIVING A BULL TO SACRIFICE c. 525-520BCE. c. 525-520BCE. • Red coloring was closer to an actual skin tone • Black details could be painted instead of carved • Lots of advantages with red figure • Less silhouette-like • More naturalistic approach The Death of Sarpedon by Euphronios (painter) and Euxitheos (potter). • c. 515 BCE. Red-figure decoration on a calyx krater. • Ceramic, height of krater 18" (45.7 cm). • Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome. • Bell krater • Bell krater ○ With handles • Depicts Hermes, death, and night CLASSICAL PERIOD • Persians were the dominant in the near-east • The Greeks defeated the Persians ○ Athens army • There was a lot of destruction though ○ Fixing everything up ○ Developments in sculpture KRITIOS BOY • From the Akropolis, Athens. c. 475 BCE. Marble, height 3'10" (1.17 m). ○ Akropolis Museum, Athens. • Scholars used to believe that the artist was named Kritios • Classical sculpture style ○ The shoulders are angled Not as front-figured Not locked in the egyptian pose ○ Contrapposto The principle of weight shift One leg is straight One leg is bent Hips are tilted ○ Head shift ○ Not as wide hips on the male ○ Incredibly realistic Implied movement ○ A lot more understanding of the movement of the body ○ Archaic smile is gone WARRIOR A • Found in the sea off Riace, Italy. c. 460-450 BCE. ○ Bronze with bone and glass eyes, silver teeth, and copper lips and nipples, height 6'9" (2.05 m). ○ National Archeological Museum, Reggio Calabria, Italy. • Not a lot of Greek bronze sculpture has survived ○ Melted down • Different materials ○ Eyes made of stone ○ Silver teeth ○ Silver eyelashes ○ Copper nipples • There are 2 ○ Warrior A and Warrior B The Akropolis by Kallikrates and Iktinos (architects) VIEW AND PLAN OF THE PARTHENON • Akropolis, Athens. 447-432 BCE. Pentelic marble. Photograph: view from the northwest. [Fig. 05-36a] • It was destroyedby the Persians • Pericles was a leader in Athens ○ There was a bunch of money that was set aside to pay for another war just in case ○ He used it to rebuild the Akropolis Thought that Athenians deserved it ○ He was not well liked DecoratedAthens like a wanton whore • The Parthenon is one of the most famous building in the world ○ Houses a phenomenal statue of Athena • Made out of marble = $$$ • Not a perfect Doric temple ○ Had ionic columns in the extra room in the cella ○ Continuous frieze in the cella Ionic element • Proportions • Proportions ○ 2x+1=y • There are no straight lines ○ The ceiling is bell curved ○ Columns are swollen at the bottom ○ The columns are also tipped inward ○ Why? Vitruvius Wrote 10 books on architecture Our eye distorts a straight line from a distance If you distort the line it will appear straight Makes it seem more static and lively than rigid too PHOTOGRAPHICMOCK-UP OF THE EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON (USING PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE EXTANT MARBLE SCULPTURE) • c. 447-432BCE. The gap in the center represents the space that would have been occupied by the missing sculpture. The pediment is over 90 feet (27.45 m) long; the central space of about 40 feet (12.2 m) is missing. The pediment of the Parthenon • The birth of Athena • 90 feet long ○ All figures are carved in the round out of marble ○ Bigger than life size The entire middle is missing (40 feet) ○ The entire middle is missing (40 feet) • Chariot is coming up from the ground • Full scale figure instead of small ones but they are fractionalized • Apollo (Helios) the sun god • Demeter,Kore, and Artemis • 3 goddesses (missing heads) LAPITH FIGHTING A CENTAUR (447-432BCE) • Metope relief from the Doric frieze on the south side of the Parthenon. c. 447-432 BCE. Marble, height 56" (1.42 m). British Museum, London. • Exterior 4 sides ○ Each side has a different theme 1. Battle of gods and giants 2. Battle of Greeks and Trojans 3. Battle of Greeks and lapiths 4. Battle of Greeks and amazons Was to reference actual events ○ Was to reference actual events Mixed with mythology Civilized vs. uncivilized IONIC FREIZE • Phidias is the sculptor or at least the designer ○ Probably had a workshop • Continuous frieze • They didn’t use real people in their art • Athens had one of the best armies in the city-state ○ There are a lot of horses on the frieze ○ Promotesthe city-state ○ Tells how they are protectedby the gods • Runs along the inside of the ceiling ○ Very long (500+ feet) DIAGRAM OF IONIC FREIZE • Peplos ○ It's a type of garment • Over 3 feet high • Originally painted • Originally painted • There are inserts where actual armor would have been added HORSEMEN • Detail of the Procession,from the Ionic frieze on the north side of the Parthenon. • c. 447-432BCE. Marble, height 41 3/4" (106 cm). British Museum, London. [Fig. 05-39] YOUNG WOMEN AND MEN • Detail of the Procession,from the Ionic frieze on the east side of the Parthenon. • c. 447-432BCE. Marble, height 3'6" (1.08 m). Musée du Louvre,Paris. [Fig. 05-40] • Panathenaic procession ○ A special procession that happened every 4 years ○ Cult statue would be given a new peplos Athena receiving a cloth square • Scholars have other theories ○ Erectheus One of the original kings Had to sacrifice one of his children □ Sacrifice would include taking off clothes and folding them RE-CREATION OF PHEIDIAS' HUGE GOLD AND IVORY FIGURE OF ATHENA • Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. • Model of what the cult statue would have looked like • 30 feet tall • Made out of gold and ivory Nothing is really left ○ • Holding the goddess of victory (Nike) Cult Statue of Athena Parthenos; Roman copy (right) • We know what Athena looks like because Romans made copies of Greek statues PolykleitosSPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) • Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450-440BCE. ○ Marble, height 6'11" (2.12 m); tree trunk and brace strut are Roman additions. ○ National Archaeological Museum, Naples. • Polykleitos ○ Greek scultptor ○ In order to achieve harmony in sculpture it requires a mathematic proportional scale Set down a treatise on his mathematicalformula Called it the canon The body is 7 head lengths tall ○ Created one statue using the previous method ○ Created one statue using his method (the canon) Turned out better • Greek ideal of a heroic athletic man THE MONUMENTAL ENTRANCE TO THE AKROPOLIS,ATHENS • The Propylaia (Mnesikles) with the Temple of Athena Nike (Kallikrates)on the bastion at the right. • The Propylaia (Mnesikles) with the Temple of Athena Nike (Kallikrates)on the bastion at the right. c. 437-423BCE. • Raised sacred area in Athens • Had two faces ○ One facing Athens ○ One facing the Akropolis • Pinacoteca ○ Picture gallery ERECHTHEION • Akropolis, Athens. 430s-406 BCE. View from the east. Porch of the Maidens at left; the north porch can be seen through the columns of the east wall. [Fig. 05-44] • The Parthenon is the main temple • The Erechtheion ○ Ionic temple ○ Female figures as columns ○ Doesn’t follow the set temple plan Is not a paristyle (have columns all the way around) Not in a perfect rectangle Has porches off of it Different ground levels 3 different rooves ○ Explanation Had to fit with the site (shifting ground levels) Built to house 3 different sacred places 1. Shrine housing wooden image of Athena 2. Athena's olive tree 3. Poseidon's trident mark 4. Ruins of Archaic temple PORCH OF THE MAIDENS (SOUTH PORCH), ERECHTHEION • Akropolis, Athens. Porch c. 420-410 BCE. • Still have a contrapposto pose • Clingy garments that revel their form • High classical ideal quality of a woman NIKE (VICTORY) ADJUSTING HER SANDAL • Fragment of relief decorationfrom the parapet (now destroyed), Temple of Athena Nike, Akropolis, Athens. Last quarter of the 5th century (perhaps 410-405) BCE. ○ Marble, height 3'6" (1.06 m). Akropolis Museum, Athens. • Tiny temple ○ Surrounded by a low walk • Still very decorated by images ○ Repeated images of Nike • Nike adjusting her sandal?? A goddess messing with her shoe?? ○ A goddess messing with her shoe?? ○ Goddesses start to be portrayed as more human • Drapery is more showing ○ Like a wet t-shirt ○ Becoming more thin and flimsy GRAVE STELE OF KTESILAOS AND THEANO • c. 400 BCE. Marble, height 36-5/8" (93 cm). ○ National Archaeological Museum, Athens. • Grave markers at this point do not show grief or mourning ○ Just focus on a momentin their life • Same sort of drapery style that’s starting Style of the Achilles Painter WOMAN AND MAID • c. 450-440BCE. White-ground lekythos. ○ Ceramic, with additional painting in tempera, height 15-1/8"(38.4 cm). ○ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Francis Bartlett Donation of 1912.(13.201). • Still classical period • New pottery style emerging ○ White-brown figure White slip ○ Paint other colors on Glaze Tempera □ Not very durable • Polygnotos ○ Artist ○ Created greater color variations ○ Showed moredepth ○ • Lightweight fabric • Long nose no bridge • Curly hair Praxiteles or his followers HERMES AND THE INFANT DIONYSOS • Probably a Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical 4th-century BCE original. • Probably a Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical 4th-century BCE original. ○ Marble, with remnants of red paint on the lips and hair, height 7'1" (2.15 m). ○ Archaeological Museum, Olympia. • Moving into late classical period • Muscles aren't as exaggerated • More textured hair • More elongated body • Lookslike flesh • Juts out the hip ○ S-pose • Portrayedmore human ○ Hermes as a man with Dionysus as an infant Praxiteles APHRODITE OF KNIDOS • Compositeof two similar Roman copies after the original marble of c. 350 BCE. ○ Marble, height 6'8" (2.04 m). ○ Vatican Museums, Museo Pio Clementino,Gabinetto delle Maschere, Rome. • Nude female ○ Finally just nude rather than thin garments • People came from all over to see this statue ○ Men were getting all weird over it ○ Had to have certain hours that it could be seen • Pose ○ s-pose Hip out ○ Modest pose Hand over genitalia • Bathing at the water vessel Lysippos MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) Lysippos MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) • Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 350-325BCE. ○ Marble, height 6'9" (2.06 m). ○ Vatican Museums, Museo Pio Clementino,Gabinetto dell'Apoxyomenos,Rome. [Fig 05-54] • Lysippos was the only one who was allowed to make sculptures of Alexander the Great • Fig leaf ○ A lot of the sculptures in the Vatican museum have the penises knocked off • Subtle changes ○ More textured hair ○ Leaner/longerfigure Lysippos changed the proportions 8 head lengths long rather than 7 ○ Arm reaching out into the viewers space Anticipates the Hellenistic period □ A lot of art breaking through to the viewer Encourages the viewer to see it from all angles HELLENISTIC GREECE • Campaign of Alexander the Great before he died (in his early 30s) • When Alexander died, the Classical Period ended and the Hellenistic Period begins • Alexander had no predecessors ○ All his powerful generals took pieces for themselves Antigonus, Ptolemy,Seleucus ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONFRONTS DARIUS III AT THE BATTLE OF ISSOS • Floor mosaic, Pompeii, Italy. 1st-century BCE Roman copy of a Greek wall painting of ○ c. 310 BCE, perhaps by Philoxenosof Eretria or Helen of Egypt. ○ Entire panel 8'10" × 17' (2.7 × 5.2 m). Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. • Mosaics became very popular ○ Floors • This is actually a Roman work ○ Copy of an original Greek painting? • Details ○ Making a flat 2D surface look like an illusionistic space ○ Naturalistic ○ A lot of action and movement ○ There is a reflection of a solider being trampled in a shield TEMPLE OF OLYMPIANZEUS, ATHENS • View from the southeast with the Akropolis in the distance. Building and rebuilding phases: foundation c. 520-510 BCE, using the Doric order; temple designed by Cossutius begun 175 BCE; left unfinished 164 BCE; completed132 CE using Cossutius' design. Height of columns 55'5" (16.89 m). • Built in Athens (with the Akropolis in the distance) • Things keep reaching colossal scale • New column form (Corinthian Order) ○ The capital has leaf details That’s about all the difference between Corinthian and Ionic OVERALL VIEW (A) AND RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING (B) OF THE THEATER, EPIDAUROS • Peloponnese,Greece. Fourth century BCE and later. [Fig. 05-59a] • Natural incline with stone seating • Sacrifices before the theater productions • Theater could hold about 12,000 people ○ Rather large • Pergamon ○ Ruled by King Attalos ○ Beautiful city build on a series of tiers Epigonos (?) DYING GALLIC TRUMPETER • Roman copy (found in Julius Caesar's garden in Rome)after the original bronze of c. 220 BCE. Marble, height 36-1/2" (93 cm). Museo Capitolino, Rome. • Pergamonpeople had to fight the Gauls ○ Pergamonwon ○ They created a monumentshowing their victory • Differences ○ Gaul study The statue has a moustache,different hair, and a necklace Not something you would see on Greeks It is something more classic on Gauls Portraying observed details ○ Sense the struggle and pain • Reconstruction ○ Centered around a dying Gaul killing his wife and then himself RECONSTRUCTED WEST FRONT OF THE ALTAR FROM PERGAMON (IN MODERN TURKEY) • c. 175-150BCE. Marble, height of figure 7'7" (2.3 m). ○ Staatliche Museen, Berlin. • The alter of Zeus ○ U-shaped ○ Covered walkway with ionic columns ○ Central staircase ○ Frieze is over 7 feet high and wraps around the alter ○ Depicts the war of the Gods and the Giants ○ Using mythologyto depict an actual victory (against the Gauls) ATHENA ATTACKING THE GIANTS • Detail of the frieze from the east front of the altar from Pergamon.c. 175-150BCE. Marble, frieze height 7'7" (2.3 m). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. • Comparing to the frieze from the Parthenon ○ Movement,texture, elegance, deeper cuts, emotion,drama, contrast Hagesandros, Polydoros,and Athenodoros of Rhodes LAOCOÖN AND HIS SONS • Original of 1st century BCE, or a Roman copy, adaptation, or original of the 1st century CE. Marble, height 8' (2.44 m).Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino,Cortile Ottagono, Rome. • A priest going to warn the people about the Trojan horse • Style Use of diagonals ○ ○ Contrast and deep cuts ○ Emotionand drama NIKE (VICTORY) OF SAMOTHRACE • Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace.c. 180 BCE (?). Marble, height 8'1" (2.45 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris. • This was part of a fountain ○ She was placed as a piece of a ship ○ Wind blowing at his clothes is depicted ○ OLD WOMAN • Roman 1st century CE copy of a Greek work of the 2nd century BCE. ○ Marble, height 49-1/2" (1.25 m). ○ MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1909.(09.39) • Someonethat wouldn’t be idealized ○ Not the athletic youth that we're so accustomedto seeing Alexandros from Antioch-on-the-OrontesAPHRODITE OF MELOS (ALSO CALLED VENUS DE MILO) • c. 150-100BCE. Marble, height 6'8" (2.04 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris. • VENUS DE MILO ○ We have a reconstructionnear ASH (UNO) • Robe is just held by her hips • Semi-classical but still Hellenistic ○ Drama and theatricality