Chapter 6 Etruscan and Roman Art
Chapter 6 Etruscan and Roman Art ART 2050-001
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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6 Etruscan and Roman Art Wednesday, October 14, 2015 8:50 AM • Etruria ○ Part of Italy (modern day Tuscany) ○ Etruscans ○ Organized into city states Led to their defeat □ Enemies just took apart each city state one by one ○ Metal workers, farmers, fishers, architects, etc. Build roads and arches ○ High point of their civilization was 6th century Same time as Greek Archaic into Classical period ○ Rome had an Etruscan king that was overthrown ○ Writing Greek alphabet, different language Not much survives ○ Same gods as Greeks but with different names ○ Respect of woman Greeks and romans look down on woman Etruscan women were equals Reconstruction of an Etruscan Temple • Borrow a bit from Greek art • No Etruscan temples have survived ○ Not because the Romans wiped them out ○ Temples are made of wood, terra cotta, and mud Not very durable Floor plan • Similar design • Layout difference ○ Fewer columns ○ Looks like it's only supposed to be entered from the front • Material differences ○ Made out of mud bricks, terra cotta, and wood Less durable No ruins because it's literally all gone No ruins because it's literally all gone • Pediment ○ Not really a pediment ○ Didn’t put sculpture in it • Tuscan order ○ Made of wood ○ Smooth shaft (no flutes or grooves) ○ Rests on a base ○ Brightly painted Master Sculptor Vulca, Apollo • Temple of Minerva, ○ Portonaccio, Veii ○ c. 510-500 BCE • Architectural sculpture ○ Didn’t put sculpture in the pediment ○ Put sculptures on the roof • Similar and same period ○ Archaic smile ○ Hair ○ Face shape Long nose Stylized eyes ○ Stylized leg muscles • Differences ○ Clothes ○ Not as focused on the details of the body ○ Arms were reaching forward a sense of vitality and movement ○ Made of terra cotta clay Learned to make large scape ceramics Not very easy • Differences of funeral rights of Greeks and Etruscans ○ Greeks No elaborate tombs headstones "Elysian fields" ○ Etruscans Elaborate graves You can learn most about a person by their tomb Would create a mock-city and have all the tombs there □ Has roads and everything • Tombs ○ Look like homes ○ Rounded shape or square Dancers and Diners, Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia, Italy, c. 480-470 BCE • Triclinium = dining area • Wall art of etruscan tombs ○ You would expect mourning ○ Instead depicts sports, games, rituals, and fun • Women are depicts in white and men in red ○ They were allowed to dine together • Focus is not on rendering the anatomy at all • Vitruvius ○ Guy who wrote the books on curved walls for optical performance ○ Wrote about Etruscans too Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy, 3rd century BCE • Tombs ○ They cremated their bodies though ○ Decorated all over with different objects ○ Filled with objects for the afterlife Reclining Couple on a Sarcophagus from Cerverteri, c. 520 BCE • Tombs would have a separate place to bury the dead • Filled with the cremated remains • Made of terra cotta • Stylized • Stylized ○ Hair ○ Almond shaped eyes ○ Archaic smile • Position is impossible ○ Anatomy is not the focus • Emphasis on interaction ○ Vitality ○ Greek art never had this emotion in this time period Novios Plautios, The Ficoroni Cista, 350-300 BCE • Skips from greek archaic to classical ○ Etruscan art goes through similar phases • Statues on top ○ Mostly nude ○ Muscles are developed • Etruscans were excellent metalworkers ○ Sheet of bronze with white powder • Used to hold combs and brushes and other toiletries • Similar ROMANS • Romans overthrew the Etruscan king ○ Had the whole Italian peninsula Eventually took over everything into Egypt • This marks the beginning of the Roman Republic ○ Republic (509-27 BCE) Rome was ruled by the senate ○ Imperial Rome was ruled by an emperor PORTRAIT HEAD OF AN ELDER FROM SCOPPITO • 1st century BCE • Detail ○ Incredible ○ Naturalism ○ Wrinkles • Compared to a portrait of Perikles ○ His portrait looked somewhat like him but obviously idealized • Verism ○ Faithfully true portraiture of people PATRICIAN CARRYING PORTRAIT BUSTS OF TWO ANCESTORS • Why make busts of yourself when you don't look that great? ○ Roman ancestral practices ○ Individual features • They were everywhere ○ If you didn’t have ancestral busts than you were a nobody with some money • Patrician's wealth is what kept Rome going Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium, Rome, late 2nd century BCE • At some point Romans captured Greece and Macedonia ○ After they were introduced to Sicilian Greek art they were hooked and importing it by the boatload ○ So they were kind of captured by the Greeks in a way • So much influence from the Greeks ○ Roman gods are very similar to the Greek gods ○ Art and architecture • Roman art is very eclectic ○ Greek Columns Ionic Columns go all the way around…but they're not full ones Columns go all the way around…but they're not full ones □ Pseudo-peripteral ○ Etruscan Enter from one side Columns fused to 3 sides of the temple □ Engaged/half-columns Layout Romans innovation in architecture • Extremely efficient builders • Features a rounded arch ○ Not something that we see in Greek architecture ○ Sort of in Etruscan architecture ○ Romans standardized it • They would use series of arches • Construction ○ Pier to pier is a bay ○ Wooden centering would be placed ○ Voussoirs would be added in and the weight would be distributed out ○ Less materials/less money/more ability to pile it on PONT DU GARD • Nîmes, France. Late 1st century BCE • Part of an aqueduct IMPERIAL PERIOD • Julius Caesar was murdered ○ Not an emperor Dictator of the senate ○ Rome was in a civil war ○ Augustus took over • OCATAVIAN BECOMES AUGUSTUS ○ First true emperor Augustus of Primaporta, Early 1st century CE • Very aware of the power of art • Romans became masters of propaganda ○ Conveying what they want to become real ○ Images places everywhere so they're constantly on their mind • Traditional Roman portraits was wrinkly old men • Augustus is more early classical Greek style ○ He revived classical Greek Art ○ Beautiful and idealistic ○ Contrapposto ○ Realistic features but still idealized • Augustus also made marble buildings ○ Rome was a city of brick and he turned it into a city of marble • Augustus was going to bring about the classical period of Rome ○ "a bringer of peace" • Relief sculpture with a message ○ Personification of Rome with a she-wolf ○ Enemy handing a flag back to the romans Longstanding battle Peaceful diplomacy rather than war • Cherub ○ Venus's son (Cupid/Eros) Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), Rome, 13-9 BCE • Decorative everything ○ Rinceaux pattern ○ Vines coming and twirling with birds chirping along ○ Very pretty Creates a sort of lush/foliage effect ○ Creates a sort of lush/foliage effect ○ Prosperity/peace Romans are craving it after this civil war Imperial Process, Ara Pacis, south side, 13-9 BCE • North and south sides of the Ara Pacis have the imperial process • Members of the emperors family • Similar to the Parthenon • Roman art mimicking Greek art ○ Greek idealization ○ Idealized figures Greek figures with curly hair and long noses ○ But they also have their own identifiable features • Imitating Greek frieze • Parthenon frieze was copied many times • Served as a model but they're not the same ○ Inspired • Roman ○ Have more sense of depth Illusionism Varying the relief □ Gives it the look that there are people behind them ○ Carving detail is very good ○ Naturalistic poses and movement ○ Children Augustine policy □ The older he got the more prude he got □ The birth rate of the high class was low Slave class was very high Slave class was very high □ By showing family he was trying to get them to have kids Descendants VIDEO • Rome engineered aqueducts ○ Genius ○ Build over the course of several centuries ○ Romans felt they were superior They could wash away the filth ○ Building Mountain lakes Tunnels through mountains Decline to the city □ A couple inches per mile Saving materials □ Arches □ Strong and efficient ○ RUNNING WATER • Claudius ○ Stutter, limp, hard of hearing People didn’t know what to do with him ○ The royal family was slaughtered Everyone but Claudius ○ Claudius became emperor The empire took many surprising steps forward Conquering Britannia □ Julius Caesar couldn’t do that New aqueducts □ Increased water flow into Rome Ruins of Pompeii, Destroyed 79 CE • Volcanic eruption from mount Vesuvius ○ Very quick ○ The ash destroyed the city but also froze it • Started excavating in the 16th century ○ Still continuing Reconstruction Drawing of Pompeii • Based the city on a grid plan • Forum ○ Long rectangular courtyard ○ Surrounded by columns ○ Heart of city life People would meet here Business Markets ○ Feature of most Roman cities ○ Would have a temple at one end • Basilica next to the forum ○ Basilica functioned as a court of law ○ Copied by Christian churches No churches (but we call churches basilicas) House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, 1st century CE House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, 1st century CE • Atrium houses ○ One of the gathering rooms is called an atrium • Vestibule ○ Entrance (throat) • Rainwater would gather in the pool ○ Opened ceiling • Cubicula ○ Cubicles ○ Bedrooms • Peristyle courtyard ○ Another gather place ○ Covered walkway on all 4 sides ○ Opened ceiling ○ Garden Peristyle Garden, House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Rebuilt 62-79 CE • Walls were painted • Recreated gardens Wall Painting, Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii • Studied wall paintings of the homes • Homes would have customized wall paintings • Augustus Mau ○ Studied all the wall paintings ○ Saw there was different styles that evolved ○ Created a classifications of Pompeiian wall painting 4 styles • Mythological scene of Ixion ○ 4th style ○ Archaeologist would cut out parts of the whole thing to sell to museums Takes away from the actual composition Initiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, c. 60-50 BCE • 2nd style ○ More like one big view ○ "illusionistic style" The walls are meant to disappear This new reality is in place • 2nd style Cityscape, House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, c. 50-30 BCE • Cityscape • Intuitive perspective ○ Multiple vanishing points • Struggle for power after Nero kills himself ○ Lasts a year • Vespasian comes out as emperor ○ Not born royal ○ Worked his way up ○ Man of the people More modest ○ Fair ruler • Has two sons ○ Titus ○ Domitian • Portraiture goes back to not being idealisized ○ Starting something different rather than just going back to what it was Nero was taking everything ○ Nero was taking everything ○ Vespasian wasn’t going to do that VIDEO • Vespasian and the Coliseum • Anti-Nero • Nero would exploit his architects for his palace • Vespasian would use his architects for the people • Coliseum ○ There was a huge statue of Nero called the colossus Coliseum is a nickname ○ Nero had a lake build on his palace grounds ○ Vespasian drained it and build the theater ○ It went from something that could only be used by a bad emperor to a place where everyone could go Propaganda ○ Construction began 72 AD Paid for by the Jerusalem ransacking □ Built by Jewish slaves 160 feet tall □ Tallest roman structure built ○ Architecture Just two Greek theaters put together Theater in the round Intricate staircases and corridors Entry gates and ticket numbers Designed to keep people comfortable Had a retractable roof to keep people shaded and air conditioned ○ Water channels Flood the arena for naval battles □ Fighting on boats They would channel water to the middle of the arena • Vespasian died the year before the coliseum was finished • Events ○ Carnage that you would only see in war ○ Animals killing people ○ Prisoners being executed ○ Gladiator fights • Earthquake is what took down half of the coliseum ○ Built with concrete and cut stone ○ Seats were made with marble When churches were made, they took out all the marble Arch of Titus, Rome, c. 81 CE • Public art/state art • Message to the people • Titus was famous for capturing Jerusalem ○ They destroyed the temple of Solomon • In the case of a great victory they would build a triumphal arch ○ Display the spoils Spoils from the Temple of Solomon, Arch of Titus, c. 81 CE • One of the reliefs on the Arch of Titus • Different levels of relief • The arch of Titus is deeper ○ Sense of depth and background • Height of figures in relation of how much space ○ Arch of Titus has a blank space ○ Sense of atmosphere Flavian amphitheater, Rome, 70-80 CE • • Floor wouldn’t be like that • Those are the tunnels below • Different levels of column styles Early empire passes, high empire begins • Domitian ○ Becomes more of a tyrannical ruler ○ Having power makes him less modest ○ He is killed • Gets Nerva to become emperor for a little bit • He adopts a general to become the next emperor though ○ Rather than having children be the next emperors Trajan Hadrian Nerva adopts Trajan Trajan adopts Hadrian Not Italian (Spanish) Not Italian (Spanish) Nicknamed Optimus Nicknamed the Greekling Means "the best" admired Greek a lot He was very well liked didn't spend a lot of time in the city Built roads and stuff First emperor to adopt wearing a beard imitating Greek scholars possibly had bad skin Model of Imperial Rome • Rome was a city of a million people ○ Absolutely huge • Rome was the capital of the world at the time • Everything on a colossal scale • Several forums ○ Hearts of the city • Forum proper ○ Open courtyard surrounded and covered • Architect named Apollodorus of Damascus • Architect named Apollodorus of Damascus • Money for this gotten from 2 campaigns and victories • Basilica Ulpia ○ Trajan Ulpia Family name ○ Law room is a basilica • Temple to Trajan after he dies • Markets • Simple structure but it's very full and beautiful ○ Has a timber roof structure ○ Not a vault made of concrete ○ Beautiful molded ceilings and marble columns though • Trajan’s Market, Rome 100-112 CE • Separate from the forum but since the market is like a shadow to the forum they're usually confused as connected • 150+ shops • • Main Hall, Trajan’s Market, Rome 100-112 CE • Great hall/main hall ○ Like a mall • • Groin vault • 2 barrel vaults places perpendicularly • Weight is transferred down to a pier ○ Square support ○ Allows to use big open arches Column of Trajan • One of 2 surviving columns in Rome • Has a statue of a saint on the top ○ Originally it would have had a statue of Trajan ○ The emperor didn’t put St. Peter on his column. • 125 feet tall Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort • Relief sculpture winding up the entire way • 23ish bands of relief ○ Thousands of figures ○ Single spiraling band ○ Similar to a scroll This is between 2 libraries • Apollodorus of Damascus may have designed this too • Depicts 2 campaigns against modern day Romania ○ They were efficient builders in time of war Building forts and bridges ○ Shows a general superiority in every single way • Trajan adopts Hadrian ○ Fellow Spaniard ○ Successful general With an army so large you need a capable leader ○ Kept up Rome to the glory that Trajan left it in • Hadrian ○ Poet, armature architect, etc. ○ Spent a lot of time outside of Rome to make sure that everything was going well He probably only spent 5 years of his reign in Rome He was gone a lot Pantheon, Rome, c. 118-128 CE • Most structurally innovative building that Rome has every built • Turned into a Catholic church early on ○ It's very preserved ○ A couple popes are buried here ○ Raphael is buried here • Roman buildings usually have a face and a walkway on a pedestal ○ Set on a podium ○ The land has sunk • Dedicated to 3 deities ○ Jupiter, mars, ??? • Looks like a classic temple from the front ○ Walking inside to be surprised by the rotunda • Rotunda ○ Largest dome every constructed in the ancient world ○ Diameter of something around 100 feet ○ Perfect sphere • Some parts of the wall are 20 feet thick ○ Concrete is efficient as heck Lime, water, rough stones, and volcanic sand called pozzolano Lime, water, rough stones, and volcanic sand called pozzolano They would also add in pumice to make the rock at the top lighter and thinner • Beautiful colored marble • Alternating niches ○ Coffers ○ Hollowing out parts of the dome to make it lighter ○ Functional and beautiful • 12 deities would have been housed in the side but now it's saints • Oculus ○ Opening in the top center ○ Creates a concentrated shaft of light that moves about around the day VIDEO • Hadrian comes back from a tour • Hadrian comes back from a tour • Builders carrying out vision in the capital city ○ Hadrian wanted to leave an imprint on the city ○ Revive Augustine architecture City of brick into a city of marble ○ Wanted to be equally as memorable ○ Rebuilding a burned out temple complex • Built the Pantheon ○ Most impressive building built by the romans • The Rotunda ○ Spans 150 feet across with no columns ○ Largest unsupported concrete dome for 18 centuries • Engineers trying to keep it from falling down ○ 20 feet thick base walls Keep it from pushing out ○ Lightening the walls Mixing concrete □ They would add in different things to make the concrete lighter as it gets higher Coffers □ Carving out parts ○ 30 foot wide hole in the ceiling Weakest part of the dome Also acts as a light source • Mysterious flaw ○ Columns don’t match up with the rotunda ○ About 10 feet short Did they sink? Did they not have enough stone? ○ No surviving records about the architect Possibly Hadrian himself Possibly Apollodorus □ Bold enough to call out Hadrian on his architecture □ Pissed Hadrian off a lot Forced Apollodorus to commit suicide Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, c. 176 CE • Emperors adopted the next emperor • Hadrian adopted not only his successor, but also the successor's successor • Hadrian > Antonius Pius > Marcus Aurelius • Marcus ○ Wrote a book "Meditations" ○ Great man ○ Comments on what makes a person virtuous and good Goes against warfare Had a conscience • Famous portrait ○ One of the few bronzes that survived Because it would be melted down ○ It survived through the middle ages because Christians thought it was Constantine ○ Not many equestrian portraits either Makes you look powerful though • Consistency in portraiture ○ Has a beard Like Hadrian ○ Portrayed as middle aged ○ Face looked relaxed/worn/tired and almost sad Doesn’t look heroic or powerful His personality/state of mind Caracalla, early 3rd century CE • Showing a lot of personality • Marcus Aureilis > Lucius Verus > Commodus > African dynasty > Caracalla • Crazy people being put in power again • Caracalla ○ Murdered his brother because his mother told him to ○ Glaring look • Difference from classicized Augustine youthful look Caracalla commissioned a monument Bath complex of Caracalla • In Rome • Created between 211 and 227 • "late empire" ○ When the empire is starting to unravel/fall • Romans prided themselves on their cleanliness ○ Baths were a ritual • Huge ○ Gardens ○ Baths ○ Shops The Tetrarchs, c. 300 CE • After the severence fall rome enters a period called "the reign of the soldier emperors" ○ No one reigns long enough to call it a reign ○ All from the military Different generals ○ Different armies would appoint an emperor Then they would be assassinated • Diocletian ○ Shares power instead of getting stabbed ○ Tetrarchy (ruled by 4) Augustus and Caesar of the west Augustus and Caesar of the east ○ Vast empire • Change in style • Augustus = greek idealism ○ Greek art always loomed as an influence • Now it seems to jump back ○ Almost Egyptian/Asian ○ More stiff ○ Anatomy is terrible They look short and squashed ○ They all look the same ○ Back to being stylized More simplified and abstracted ○ Message is pretty obvious though 4 rulers ruling as one ○ "late antique style" • But it conveys a message rather quickly ○ Not much need for interpretation ○ Less admiration for the art ○ More conceptual • Roman empire at its greatest geographical extent • The different tetrarchs start fighting each other for power ○ The battle comes down to 2 sons of tetrarchs • Maxentius vs. Constantine ○ Battle of the Milvian bridge ○ Constantine wins Reunites Rome He praises the Christian god □ Had a vision Moves the capital from Rome to Constantinople □ Byzantium renamed Constantinople renamed Istanbul • Christianity ○ Edict of Milan Cannot persecute a person based on their religion Document of religious tolerance 314-315 AD 300 years of Christian persecution ○ Jews and Christians were persecuted because of their monotheism Wouldn’t worship roman gods on the side ○ Constantine doesn’t convert to Christianity until on his deathbed His mother and daughter were both Christians though Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312-315 CE • Commemorate his victory • 3 arches • More decorative • Originality ○ Only part that Constantine had carved is the lower frieze • Everything else on this monument was taken from other monuments ○ Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius All great emperors ○ Propagandistic stunt? ○ Recarves a couple to match his likeness Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo; Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum • Still have that regressive art style in the frieze ○ Comparatively to the grace of the rest of them ○ Communicates the message quickly "Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum" Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, 306-313 CE • Constantine also paid for the Basilica Nova • It was started by Maxentius (Constantine's enemy) When he won, he continued off the idea ○ When he won, he continued off the idea • Architecture ○ Much like the markets of Trajan ○ Groin-vaults with perpendicular barrel-vaults • Also had a HUGE sculpture of Constantine ○ Seated, it was 40 feet tall ○ The head was 8 feet tall Constantine the Great, 325-326 CE • Part of the huge statue of Constantine • 8 foot tall head • The head and limbs were made of marble ○ The rest of the body was made of cheaper materials • Features ○ Clean shaved face ○ Sharp features ○ Large, stylized eyes All-powerful Priestess of Bacchus, c. 390-4-1 • Made of ivory • Leaf of a diptych ○ Has shutters folded together • Augustus's ara pacis • Similarity of style ○ Classical facial features ○ Garment folds • All these changes yet this one isn't?? ○ This style doesn’t die out even though the other style is becoming popular ○ Pagan influence