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Chapter 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art

by: Lisa Render

Chapter 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art ART 2050-001

Marketplace > University of Nebraska at Omaha > Art History > ART 2050-001 > Chapter 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art
Lisa Render
GPA 3.578

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Survey of Western Art History I: Chapter 7 Notes
Survey of Western Art History 1
Dr. Amy Morris
Class Notes
Art, history
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
7 Jewish and Early Christian Art Monday, November 2, 2015 8:30 AM Map • West and east • Shrinking Roman empire • Most of the art of this period was religiously based • Constantine made Christianity legal ○ He died in 347 • Mother was a Christian ○ She goes a quest to find the cross Jesus was crucified on ○ She becomesa saint (Helena) • Theodosius I ○ 395 AD ○ Makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire • Christianity ○ Jesus is the son of god ○ Crucified  Rose from the dead  Prophesized ○ Transubstantiation ○ Baptism ○ Blood and wine ○ Life everlasting ○ New Testament ○ Popular among the lower classes  Spread until it became the official religion • Dura-Europos, Syria ○ Straddles the Euphrates River ○ Early Christian and Jewish art has been found here ○ Inhabitants of this town knew it was going to be sacked  They evacuated the city in 256 AD  Parthians came to sack the city there was no one to take it from □ So they left  No one ever reinhabitated it  Has many different religions □ Temples to Zeus, Christian, and Jewish worships Wall with Torah Niche, House-Synagogue, Dura-Europos, Syria, 244-245 • Gathering area of the synagogue • Painted with scenes from the Torah ○ King David, Moses, Samuel • Very strange ○ Commandment--don’tworship false idols ○ They start a tradition of representing scenes ○ Illustrated Hebrew bibles Crossing of the Red Sea, House-Synagogue, Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245 • Parting of the red sea • Art style is still similar to the newer Roman style ○ It spread all the way to the east Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Before 256 • Typical house is Dura-Europos • Centered around a courtyard/atrium • There is a room for baptism ○ Initiation into Christianity Walls and Baptismal Font, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Syria, before 256 • Not well preserved • Depicting Christ's miracles The Good Shepherd with Adam and Eve after the Fall, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Before 256 • Image above baptismal font • One of the earliest images in which Jesus is portrayed ○ As a shepherd ○ Not as a great king or powerful being • Adam and eve • Adam and eve ○ Created original sin ○ Baptism cleans that Catacombs • Underground burial in the city of Rome • 90 miles of catacombsunderground • Long narrow tunnels with shelves • Shelves called loculi ○ Filled with bodies • Roomscalled cubiculum ○ Owned by a wealthy family ○ Christians gather together • Christians keep the body intact Resurrection practice ○ Resurrection practice ○ They would pool together money for burials ○ Cremation was frowned upon The Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of SS. Peter and Marcellinus, late 3rd-early 4th century • Fresco on the ceiling • Divided into geometric patterns • Jesus is portrayed as the good shepherd ○ Gives his life for even one of his sheep  Salvation ○ Referring to scripture • Jonah and the whale ○ On a boat ○ Being spit up from the whale ○ Lying nude resting  Pagan references • Orants ○ Figures with outstretchedhands The Good Shepherd, second half of the 3rd century • One of several sculptures discovered in Turkey • Christ represented as the Good Shepherd • Christian art before it was legal is very rare • Pairing of Jonah and Christ was very popular • Youthful figure ○ Much like the representations of the god Apollo • Classic figure • Not life-size (about 3-4 feet tall?) Legalization • Christianity is persecuted until it is legalized ○ Constantine • Christianity within 50 years becomesthe religion of Rome • People are then basically persecuted if you aren't Christian Old St. Peter’s • Constantine had it built for Christians ○ Emperors had a tradition of building basilica = • Doesn’t exist anymore ○ Survived for about 1200years ○ Not taken down until the 1500s • Dedicated to St. Peter ○ Much like temples are dedicated to gods ○ Thought that St. Peter was buried here • Built it like a basilica ○ Didn’t want to build it like a Roman temple ○ Not religious in nature ○ Very appropriate ○ Big and open  Allow a lot of people into it • Terms ○ Center aisle = nave ○ Courtyard = atrium ○ Entrance but not quite = narthex ○ Window level = clerestory ○ Transverse hallways = transept  Important!  This wasn't in anything before  Right where St. Peter was believed to be buried □ Circulate to see where he was buried  Christian innovation Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 422-432 • Early Christian church that is still pretty well preserved • Outside is very plain ○ Red brick • Much smaller than Old St. Peters Church of Santa Costanza, Rome,c. 350 • Romans would build circular templescalled Tholos • Example of a central plan ○ Can include a circle or octagon or a Greek cross  Greek cross + ○ Basically as long as the center is equidistant • Not meant to be a church ○ Meant to be a mausoleum for Constantine's daughter Constantia Harvesting of Grapes, Santa Costanza, Rome,c. 350 • Mosaics became very popular ○ Recently they were on the floor ○ Now they are moving up the walls and onto ceilings • Geometricpatterns • Syncretism ○ Images that can be interpreted differently across religions ○ Some people would think that Jesus was Apollo • The meaning of the mosaics is interpreted different ways ○ Constantia was a Christian; Constantia's husband was Pagan ○ Cherubs smashing grapes and making wine  Dionysus is the god of wine = pagan  Jesus blood of Christ wine = Christian Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359 • Junius Bassus was a prefect of Rome • Baptized on his deathbed in 359 • Different stories portrayed ○ Daniel and the lion den ○ Sacrifice of Isaac ○ Adam and Eve ○ Christ is on the 2 center scenes  Enthroned flanked by Peter and Paul  Palm Sunday • First images we've seen of Jesus in a while ○ He is portrayed as moreof an emperor now ○ Still has a classical kind of style ○ Proportionsare still odd Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 424-426 • Rome's borders keep shrinking • Attacked by Germanic tribes • Visigoths ○ "western goth" ○ They becomeincredibly powerful ○ 410 AD they sack the heart of Rome Alaric is their leader ○ Alaric is their leader • The emperor movesthe capital to Ravenna ○ East west divide is still happening  East capital is Constantinople  West capital is moved to Ravenna • Sister is taken captive by the Visigoths ○ She is married to one of them ○ She bears a son ○ Is taken back and rules as empress for a bit The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 425-426 • Christ's visual appearance changes again ○ Still the good shepherd ○ More powerful and godly though


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