Chapter 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art
Chapter 7 Jewish and Early Christian Art ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
7 Jewish and Early Christian Art Monday, November 2, 2015 8:30 AM Map • West and east • Shrinking Roman empire • Most of the art of this period was religiously based • Constantine made Christianity legal ○ He died in 347 • Mother was a Christian ○ She goes a quest to find the cross Jesus was crucified on ○ She becomesa saint (Helena) • Theodosius I ○ 395 AD ○ Makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire • Christianity ○ Jesus is the son of god ○ Crucified Rose from the dead Prophesized ○ Transubstantiation ○ Baptism ○ Blood and wine ○ Life everlasting ○ New Testament ○ Popular among the lower classes Spread until it became the official religion • Dura-Europos, Syria ○ Straddles the Euphrates River ○ Early Christian and Jewish art has been found here ○ Inhabitants of this town knew it was going to be sacked They evacuated the city in 256 AD Parthians came to sack the city there was no one to take it from □ So they left No one ever reinhabitated it Has many different religions □ Temples to Zeus, Christian, and Jewish worships Wall with Torah Niche, House-Synagogue, Dura-Europos, Syria, 244-245 • Gathering area of the synagogue • Painted with scenes from the Torah ○ King David, Moses, Samuel • Very strange ○ Commandment--don’tworship false idols ○ They start a tradition of representing scenes ○ Illustrated Hebrew bibles Crossing of the Red Sea, House-Synagogue, Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245 • Parting of the red sea • Art style is still similar to the newer Roman style ○ It spread all the way to the east Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Before 256 • Typical house is Dura-Europos • Centered around a courtyard/atrium • There is a room for baptism ○ Initiation into Christianity Walls and Baptismal Font, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Syria, before 256 • Not well preserved • Depicting Christ's miracles The Good Shepherd with Adam and Eve after the Fall, Baptistery, Christian house-church, Dura-Europos, Before 256 • Image above baptismal font • One of the earliest images in which Jesus is portrayed ○ As a shepherd ○ Not as a great king or powerful being • Adam and eve • Adam and eve ○ Created original sin ○ Baptism cleans that Catacombs • Underground burial in the city of Rome • 90 miles of catacombsunderground • Long narrow tunnels with shelves • Shelves called loculi ○ Filled with bodies • Roomscalled cubiculum ○ Owned by a wealthy family ○ Christians gather together • Christians keep the body intact Resurrection practice ○ Resurrection practice ○ They would pool together money for burials ○ Cremation was frowned upon The Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of SS. Peter and Marcellinus, late 3rd-early 4th century • Fresco on the ceiling • Divided into geometric patterns • Jesus is portrayed as the good shepherd ○ Gives his life for even one of his sheep Salvation ○ Referring to scripture • Jonah and the whale ○ On a boat ○ Being spit up from the whale ○ Lying nude resting Pagan references • Orants ○ Figures with outstretchedhands The Good Shepherd, second half of the 3rd century • One of several sculptures discovered in Turkey • Christ represented as the Good Shepherd • Christian art before it was legal is very rare • Pairing of Jonah and Christ was very popular • Youthful figure ○ Much like the representations of the god Apollo • Classic figure • Not life-size (about 3-4 feet tall?) Legalization • Christianity is persecuted until it is legalized ○ Constantine • Christianity within 50 years becomesthe religion of Rome • People are then basically persecuted if you aren't Christian Old St. Peter’s • Constantine had it built for Christians ○ Emperors had a tradition of building basilica = • Doesn’t exist anymore ○ Survived for about 1200years ○ Not taken down until the 1500s • Dedicated to St. Peter ○ Much like temples are dedicated to gods ○ Thought that St. Peter was buried here • Built it like a basilica ○ Didn’t want to build it like a Roman temple ○ Not religious in nature ○ Very appropriate ○ Big and open Allow a lot of people into it • Terms ○ Center aisle = nave ○ Courtyard = atrium ○ Entrance but not quite = narthex ○ Window level = clerestory ○ Transverse hallways = transept Important! This wasn't in anything before Right where St. Peter was believed to be buried □ Circulate to see where he was buried Christian innovation Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 422-432 • Early Christian church that is still pretty well preserved • Outside is very plain ○ Red brick • Much smaller than Old St. Peters Church of Santa Costanza, Rome,c. 350 • Romans would build circular templescalled Tholos • Example of a central plan ○ Can include a circle or octagon or a Greek cross Greek cross + ○ Basically as long as the center is equidistant • Not meant to be a church ○ Meant to be a mausoleum for Constantine's daughter Constantia Harvesting of Grapes, Santa Costanza, Rome,c. 350 • Mosaics became very popular ○ Recently they were on the floor ○ Now they are moving up the walls and onto ceilings • Geometricpatterns • Syncretism ○ Images that can be interpreted differently across religions ○ Some people would think that Jesus was Apollo • The meaning of the mosaics is interpreted different ways ○ Constantia was a Christian; Constantia's husband was Pagan ○ Cherubs smashing grapes and making wine Dionysus is the god of wine = pagan Jesus blood of Christ wine = Christian Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359 • Junius Bassus was a prefect of Rome • Baptized on his deathbed in 359 • Different stories portrayed ○ Daniel and the lion den ○ Sacrifice of Isaac ○ Adam and Eve ○ Christ is on the 2 center scenes Enthroned flanked by Peter and Paul Palm Sunday • First images we've seen of Jesus in a while ○ He is portrayed as moreof an emperor now ○ Still has a classical kind of style ○ Proportionsare still odd Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 424-426 • Rome's borders keep shrinking • Attacked by Germanic tribes • Visigoths ○ "western goth" ○ They becomeincredibly powerful ○ 410 AD they sack the heart of Rome Alaric is their leader ○ Alaric is their leader • The emperor movesthe capital to Ravenna ○ East west divide is still happening East capital is Constantinople West capital is moved to Ravenna • Sister is taken captive by the Visigoths ○ She is married to one of them ○ She bears a son ○ Is taken back and rules as empress for a bit The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 425-426 • Christ's visual appearance changes again ○ Still the good shepherd ○ More powerful and godly though