Chapter 15 Early Medieval Art
Chapter 15 Early Medieval Art ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
Reviews for Chapter 15 Early Medieval Art
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/05/16
15 Early Medieval Art Wednesday, November 18, 2015 8:53 AM Similar time period but in the western roman empire Early Medieval Migrations • Ostrogoths– Italy (capital Ravenna) • Visigoths – Spain • Burgundians – Switzerland and eastern France ○ Burgundy, France • Franks – Germany, France and Belgium ○ Emperor Charlemagne is Frankish • Anglo-Saxons - England Jewelry of Queen Arnegunde, c. 580-590 • Society has changed to a great degree • Different art forms • Jewelry was the main art form of the time ○ Germanic peoples valued jewelry as a symbol of status and wealth in society • Merovingian dynasty of the Frankish empire ○ Merovech ○ Queen Arnegunde • In england in the early 1900sthis family discovered on their property, mounds ○ In these mounds they found ships Viking ships 90 feet long ○ And men buried in these ships ○ Burial mounds ○ Sutton Hoo Ship Memorial ○ Not a lot of the timber survives but the metal left an impressions Hinged Clasp, Sutton Hoo Burial Ship, Suffolk, England, First half of seventh century • Treasures found in the burial mound • King Raedwald ○ Body is decomposedand disintegrated but that’s who archeologists think it is ○ Pagan king convertedto Christianity • There's a story in Beowulf that a king was put in a ship with treasures after he died ○ Could've been sent off to sea, burned, or buried • Shoulder clasp ○ Used to hold large amounts of fabric stable at the shoulder • Skilled metal workers ○ Cloisonné Sheets of gold filled in with paste and enamel Almost like making walls ○ Millefiore Checkerboard effect • Subject ○ Abstracted boar Strength Bravery • Monks in the British isles Powerful in going out and spreading Christianity ○ Powerful in going out and spreading Christianity ○ They were highly educated • Commonartistic output of monasterieswas books ○ Illuminated manuscripts Illustrated books ○ They would have rooms to make these ○ Preservedculture and movement ○ Gospel books 4 gospels Matthew Mark Luke and John Each represented by a different animal Man, Book of Durrow, second half of 7th century • Book of Durrow ○ A man thought that it had magical properties Would feed the pages to his sheep when they got sick ○ Symbols of Matthew ○ • Similar patterns even though it's different materials ○ Checkerboard and interlace ○ From metalworkand prized objects • Monks using the artistic properties of the Germanic tribes Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels c. 715-720 • Produced by Irish or English monks • Both author pages from gospel books • Style More dimension 2D and flat Return of the human figure Abstract version of a man Gospel writer Matthew actually writing the gospel ○ Words on the page More figures Use of line Use of line Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Ezra Restoring the Sacred Scriptures, Gospels, c. 715-720 Codex Amiatinus, c. 700-715 WearmouthJarrow • Had a collectionof ancient manuscripts • An artist there copied something • Similarities ○ Figures are in the exact same position ○ Colors are similar ○ They both tookto it differently but it's very similar Vikings • Nearly all of Europe has been Christianized • Vikings start to descend and sack places • They targeted monasteries ○ They were rich with gold ○ They would destroythings though • They wouldn’t just take things and go ○ They would colonize Gripping Beasts, Oseberg Ship, c. 815-820 • Animal motifs • Oseberg style • Ferocious animals ○ Bulgy eyes and open mouths • Decorative One empire rises toward the end of this century Carolingian empire • Amass a large amount of land under their control • Court located in Aachen • Most important leader was Charlemagne (Charles the Great) ○ Frankish ○ Renovatio Imperii Romani Revive the Roman empire • Punctuation and upper and lower case letters come about in this period Equestrian Portrait of Charles the Bald, 9th century • Grandson of Charlemagne • Tradition of roman rulers represented on horseback ○ Marcus Aurelius • Artist probably used one as a model • Appears as Frankish though ○ Moustache ○ Upright pose ○ Holds an orb ○ More stylized rather than naturalistic Carolingians • Franks – Germanic people settled in Gaul • Charlemagne (ruled 768-814)– crowned emperorby Pope Leo III • Western Germany, France, Low Countries, Lombard Kingdom in Italy • The renewal of the Roman Empire Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Built a palace with a chapel attached ○ Could have mass said to him privately • Buried there too ○ Mausoleum • Added westworkor pronounced entrance ○ Entrance compound ○ Can have multiple stories ○ Usually towers on either side that provide access ○ Innovation of Carolingian architecture ○ Charlemagne could be seen from the window Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Has a center capped with a dome • Surrounded by a gallery • Tribune where Charlemagne would have sat Inspired by San Vitale • Wanted to create a connection between himself and Christian rulers (Justinian) • Connected with the Roman empire in general • Adaptation not an exact copy • Heavier and solid columns Saint Gall Plan, c. 817 • Benedictine Order ○ Common/onlyreligious order at the time ○ Benedictine monks lived in secluded monasteries Would produce books and preserve learning People who live away from the world Self-sufficient • An abbot sent a ground plan for an ideal monastery ○ If you're going to live away from the world, this is a good way to do i Layout • Central monasterychurch ○ Longitudinal Sets a precedent for the rest of the churches Kind of modeled after St. Peters • Cloister ○ Place where monks could privately pray/have quiet time • Transept ○ Where they slept ○ Connected to the church • Refectory ○ Dining hall • Organized by modules ○ Geometricizedlayout St. Matthewthe Evangelist, CoronationGospels, Early 9th century • Author portrait/evangelistportrait • More realistic than what we've seen in a while ○ Lookslike a roman Cropped hair Toga ○ Forges a connection with the Roman past • Purple parts ○ Paint has flaked off ○ Pages were dyed purple Possible that this was made for Charlemagne St. Matthew,Ebbo Gospels, Second quarter of 9th century • Reims ○ One of the cities that may have given rise to an alternative style of book production ○ Ebbo • Same model--differentinterpretation Ottonian Empire • Received name from emperors – Otto • New Saxon dynasty in Germany/Austria • After the family of Charlemagne’s grandson, Louis the German, had died out ○ Susceptible to Viking raids • Gained control of Northern Italy • Holy Roman Empire – Germany and Italy under German ruler Church of St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 • intenior Ottonian vs. Early Christian Architecture • Deviationfrom model ○ Santa Sabina and St. Peters • Longitudinal plan • No consistent column hall ○ Columns ○ Column, block, column, block ○ Breaks up space when you alternate Alternating support system • Cyriakus has a 3 story plan ○ Arcade, gallery, clerestory St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany • Bishop Bernward ○ One of the most important patrons of this period ○ He was the bishop of this church Doors,Santa Sabina, Rome • Bishop Bernward commissiondecorations ○ Was a goldsmith Could have assisted or guided them in this piece • Santa Sabina's doors • Santa Sabina's doors ○ Narrative depictions of bible stories ○ Wooden ○ Inspiration probably • Famous set of bronze doors ○ 16 feet tall Doors of Bishop Bernward, St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015 • 16 feet tall • Revival of large scale sculpture • Most ambitious bronze project since the fall of the roman empire • 16 panels total ○ 8 on each side ○ Complex relationship between each panel Crucifixion next to Adam and Eve Cain murders Abel next to the Annunciation (Mary conceiving Christ) • Accusation of Adam and Eve ○ God accuses Adam, Adam accuses Eve, Eve accuses the snake Christ Washing feet of Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto III, c. 1000 • Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced • Style ○ Tall slender figures ○ Strongly outlined forms ○ Heavy drapery ○ Byzantine Otto II married a Byzantine princess named Theophanu Still considered a court of history, art, and etiquette Otto III was proud of his Byzantine heritage ○ Dialogue through strong gestures • Domeof byzantine church • Similarity of style
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'