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Chapter 15 Early Medieval Art

by: Lisa Render

Chapter 15 Early Medieval Art ART 2050-001

Lisa Render
GPA 3.578

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Survey of Western Art History I: Chapter 15 Notes
Survey of Western Art History 1
Dr. Amy Morris
Class Notes
Art, history
25 ?




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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
15 Early Medieval Art Wednesday, November 18, 2015 8:53 AM Similar time period but in the western roman empire Early Medieval Migrations • Ostrogoths– Italy (capital Ravenna) • Visigoths – Spain • Burgundians – Switzerland and eastern France ○ Burgundy, France • Franks – Germany, France and Belgium ○ Emperor Charlemagne is Frankish • Anglo-Saxons - England Jewelry of Queen Arnegunde, c. 580-590 • Society has changed to a great degree • Different art forms • Jewelry was the main art form of the time ○ Germanic peoples valued jewelry as a symbol of status and wealth in society • Merovingian dynasty of the Frankish empire ○ Merovech ○ Queen Arnegunde • In england in the early 1900sthis family discovered on their property, mounds ○ In these mounds they found ships  Viking ships  90 feet long ○ And men buried in these ships ○ Burial mounds ○ Sutton Hoo Ship Memorial ○ Not a lot of the timber survives but the metal left an impressions Hinged Clasp, Sutton Hoo Burial Ship, Suffolk, England, First half of seventh century • Treasures found in the burial mound • King Raedwald ○ Body is decomposedand disintegrated but that’s who archeologists think it is ○ Pagan king convertedto Christianity • There's a story in Beowulf that a king was put in a ship with treasures after he died ○ Could've been sent off to sea, burned, or buried • Shoulder clasp ○ Used to hold large amounts of fabric stable at the shoulder • Skilled metal workers ○ Cloisonné  Sheets of gold filled in with paste and enamel  Almost like making walls ○ Millefiore  Checkerboard effect • Subject ○ Abstracted boar  Strength  Bravery • Monks in the British isles Powerful in going out and spreading Christianity ○ Powerful in going out and spreading Christianity ○ They were highly educated • Commonartistic output of monasterieswas books ○ Illuminated manuscripts  Illustrated books ○ They would have rooms to make these ○ Preservedculture and movement ○ Gospel books  4 gospels  Matthew Mark Luke and John  Each represented by a different animal Man, Book of Durrow, second half of 7th century • Book of Durrow ○ A man thought that it had magical properties  Would feed the pages to his sheep when they got sick ○ Symbols of Matthew ○ • Similar patterns even though it's different materials ○ Checkerboard and interlace ○ From metalworkand prized objects • Monks using the artistic properties of the Germanic tribes Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels c. 715-720 • Produced by Irish or English monks • Both author pages from gospel books • Style More dimension 2D and flat Return of the human figure Abstract version of a man Gospel writer Matthew actually writing the gospel ○ Words on the page More figures Use of line Use of line Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Ezra Restoring the Sacred Scriptures, Gospels, c. 715-720 Codex Amiatinus, c. 700-715 WearmouthJarrow • Had a collectionof ancient manuscripts • An artist there copied something • Similarities ○ Figures are in the exact same position ○ Colors are similar ○ They both tookto it differently but it's very similar Vikings • Nearly all of Europe has been Christianized • Vikings start to descend and sack places • They targeted monasteries ○ They were rich with gold ○ They would destroythings though • They wouldn’t just take things and go ○ They would colonize Gripping Beasts, Oseberg Ship, c. 815-820 • Animal motifs • Oseberg style • Ferocious animals ○ Bulgy eyes and open mouths • Decorative One empire rises toward the end of this century Carolingian empire • Amass a large amount of land under their control • Court located in Aachen • Most important leader was Charlemagne (Charles the Great) ○ Frankish ○ Renovatio Imperii Romani  Revive the Roman empire • Punctuation and upper and lower case letters come about in this period Equestrian Portrait of Charles the Bald, 9th century • Grandson of Charlemagne • Tradition of roman rulers represented on horseback ○ Marcus Aurelius • Artist probably used one as a model • Appears as Frankish though ○ Moustache ○ Upright pose ○ Holds an orb ○ More stylized rather than naturalistic Carolingians • Franks – Germanic people settled in Gaul • Charlemagne (ruled 768-814)– crowned emperorby Pope Leo III • Western Germany, France, Low Countries, Lombard Kingdom in Italy • The renewal of the Roman Empire Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Built a palace with a chapel attached ○ Could have mass said to him privately • Buried there too ○ Mausoleum • Added westworkor pronounced entrance ○ Entrance compound ○ Can have multiple stories ○ Usually towers on either side that provide access ○ Innovation of Carolingian architecture ○ Charlemagne could be seen from the window Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 • Has a center capped with a dome • Surrounded by a gallery • Tribune where Charlemagne would have sat Inspired by San Vitale • Wanted to create a connection between himself and Christian rulers (Justinian) • Connected with the Roman empire in general • Adaptation not an exact copy • Heavier and solid columns Saint Gall Plan, c. 817 • Benedictine Order ○ Common/onlyreligious order at the time ○ Benedictine monks lived in secluded monasteries  Would produce books and preserve learning  People who live away from the world  Self-sufficient • An abbot sent a ground plan for an ideal monastery ○ If you're going to live away from the world, this is a good way to do i Layout • Central monasterychurch ○ Longitudinal  Sets a precedent for the rest of the churches  Kind of modeled after St. Peters • Cloister ○ Place where monks could privately pray/have quiet time • Transept ○ Where they slept ○ Connected to the church • Refectory ○ Dining hall • Organized by modules ○ Geometricizedlayout St. Matthewthe Evangelist, CoronationGospels, Early 9th century • Author portrait/evangelistportrait • More realistic than what we've seen in a while ○ Lookslike a roman  Cropped hair  Toga ○ Forges a connection with the Roman past • Purple parts ○ Paint has flaked off ○ Pages were dyed purple  Possible that this was made for Charlemagne St. Matthew,Ebbo Gospels, Second quarter of 9th century • Reims ○ One of the cities that may have given rise to an alternative style of book production ○ Ebbo • Same model--differentinterpretation Ottonian Empire • Received name from emperors – Otto • New Saxon dynasty in Germany/Austria • After the family of Charlemagne’s grandson, Louis the German, had died out ○ Susceptible to Viking raids • Gained control of Northern Italy • Holy Roman Empire – Germany and Italy under German ruler Church of St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 St. Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961-973 • intenior Ottonian vs. Early Christian Architecture • Deviationfrom model ○ Santa Sabina and St. Peters • Longitudinal plan • No consistent column hall ○ Columns ○ Column, block, column, block ○ Breaks up space when you alternate  Alternating support system • Cyriakus has a 3 story plan ○ Arcade, gallery, clerestory St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany • Bishop Bernward ○ One of the most important patrons of this period ○ He was the bishop of this church Doors,Santa Sabina, Rome • Bishop Bernward commissiondecorations ○ Was a goldsmith  Could have assisted or guided them in this piece • Santa Sabina's doors • Santa Sabina's doors ○ Narrative depictions of bible stories ○ Wooden ○ Inspiration probably • Famous set of bronze doors ○ 16 feet tall Doors of Bishop Bernward, St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015 • 16 feet tall • Revival of large scale sculpture • Most ambitious bronze project since the fall of the roman empire • 16 panels total ○ 8 on each side ○ Complex relationship between each panel  Crucifixion next to Adam and Eve  Cain murders Abel next to the Annunciation (Mary conceiving Christ) • Accusation of Adam and Eve ○ God accuses Adam, Adam accuses Eve, Eve accuses the snake Christ Washing feet of Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto III, c. 1000 • Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced • Style ○ Tall slender figures ○ Strongly outlined forms ○ Heavy drapery ○ Byzantine  Otto II married a Byzantine princess named Theophanu  Still considered a court of history, art, and etiquette  Otto III was proud of his Byzantine heritage ○ Dialogue through strong gestures • Domeof byzantine church • Similarity of style


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