PSYC 2001: Chapter 8 Notes (Cognition&Language)
PSYC 2001: Chapter 8 Notes (Cognition&Language) Psyc 2001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Jennings on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2001 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
PSYC 2001- Ch. 8 Cognition & Language Notes Cognition: involves higher mental processes - thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, judging Thinking – brain activity in which we mentally manipulate information No other species contemplates, analyzes, or recollects the way humans do. Mental Images – representations in the mind of an object or an event ALL senses involved in producing corresponding mental images. have properties of actual stimuli they represent improves skills -can increase athletic performance & public speaking Concepts: groupings of similar objects, events, and people that can influence behavior enable to organize complex phenomena into cognitive categories that are easier to understand and remember Prototypes: representative examples of a concept that correspond to a mental image -similar prototypes among people of the same culture Reasoning: process by which information is used to draw conclusions and make decisions Formal Reasoning: -Deductive: general to specific Ex.) A=B; B=C; therefore, A=? Answer: ?=C -Inductive: specific to general Ex.) If 20% of one class is colorblind, then 20% of entire school is colorblind as well. Learning Strategies: Algorithm- rule that guarantees a solution to a problem Ex.) Pythagorean Theorem Problem with Algorithms: generally take too long to reach solution Heuristics- thinking strategy that may lead to a solution but may lead to errors Ex.) Tic Tac Toe Types of Heuristics: - Availability: judging probability of an event occurring on the basis of how easy it is to think of examples (strong influence from media) - Familiarity: familiar items seen as superior to those that are unfamiliar Computers & Problem Solving: Artificial Intelligence (AI)- field examining how to use technology to imitate outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities Problem Solving: Well-defined problem- nature of problem and information needed to solve is clear Ex.) puzzle, math equation Ill-defined problem- nature of problem and information needed to solve is unclear Ex.) racism, peace in the Middle East Kinds of Problems: Arrangement Problems – must rearrange elements in a way that will satisfy certain criterion Problems of Inducing Structure – identify existing relationships among elements presented and construct a new relationship among them Transformation Problems – consist of initial state, goal state, and method for changing initial state into goal state Most basic way to solve problems: trial & error Complex problem-solving: heuristics & cognitive shortcuts Means-ends analysis: given end result and working backwards to find a solution Insight: sudden awareness of relationships among various elements that previously appeared independent of each other Problem-Solving Inhibitors: Functional Fixedness – tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Mental Set – tendency to approach a problem in a certain way because that method worked previously Judgment: final stage in problem-solving *Accurate choices among different stimulations can be made if appropriate heuristics and valid information is relied upon to make decisions. -Confirmation Bias: tendency to find and apply information that supports one’s initial solution or idea and to ignore information that doesn’t support it Creativity: ability to generate original ideas and solve problems in novel ways Divergent Thinking- ability to generate unusual responses to problems -deteriorates as we get older Convergent Thinking- produce responses based primarily on knowledge and logic Language: communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules Grammar: system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed Phonology – study of smallest units of speech (phonemes) Syntax – ways words & phrases combine to make sentences Semantics – meaning of words and sentences - 800 phonemes in all world languages - English speakers use about 52. - Differences in phonemes among languages (difficulty in language acquisition) Babble: meaningless sounds made by children/baby noises -(critical period for language 3 months-1 year) - Telegraphic Speech: sentences in which only essential words are used - Overgeneralization: children over-apply a language rule, and making an error “He runned/runneded.” Approaches to Language: Learning Theory Approach – reinforcement & conditioning (operant conditioning) Nativist Approach – biologically pre-wired (nature debate) Interactionist Approach – combination of genetics and environment (nature & nurture) Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: Language shapes perception and understanding of the world. Bilingualism – ability to speak two languages - Cognitive benefits/flexibility - Protection against later cognitive decline - Creativity - Activation of various parts of the brain - Superior cognitive development Animals & Language: communication in rudimentary forms (not as complex as humans) - Chimps communicate at a surprisingly higher level. - Critics say that animal language lacks grammar and complex and novel constructions of human language.
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