Chapter 17 Gothic Art
Chapter 17 Gothic Art ART 2050-001
Popular in Survey of Western Art History 1
Popular in Art History
This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Render on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2050-001 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Dr. Amy Morris in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History 1 in Art History at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
17 Gothic Art Friday, December 4, 2015 9:00 AM • The start of gothic art • Gothic was a derogatory term ○ Germanic tribes Ostragoths Visigoths ○ Barbarians ○ Term was coined in the renaissance Georgia Vasari He called it barbaric In the renaissance they tried to revive Greek and Roman Saw everything in between Greek and Roman to the renaissance as the dark ages Vasari also disliked gothic architecture □ How where the weight was centered on was on the outside Saint-Denis ○ Birthplace of Gothic style ○ Abbot Suger commissioned rebuilding ○ Significance of church • Intellectual time in Paris • The cities would have to contribute to these buildings ○ Became a source of civic pride for that city ○ Cities began to compete with each other • Opus dernudum ○ "new style" of architecture ○ Moves to other countries and they call it the "French style" Opus francigenum • Royal foothold ○ Held the crown ○ Plan of the Choir, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144 Ambulatory and Apse Chapels, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144 • Saint Denis was important to France • Has some of the features that we encountered in Romanesque art ○ Pointed arches ○ Ribbed groin vaults Saint-Denis Romanesque Pilgrimage Church, Saint- Sernin Same ground plan as St. James Achieved a sense of open space without walls Pilgramage architecture -radiating chapel and ambulatory Stained glass windows Stained glass windows -pseudo dionysius (thought he was reading the writings of saint denis but he was reading this) -written as "divine light" Choir of Saint-Denis • Walls of stained glass replace masonry • New aesthetic based on open spaces • Combined ribbed groin vaults, pointed arches, wall buttresses, and window openings • Masterful use of vaulting Rib Vaulting • The ribs become the primary transfers of weight • The ribs become the primary transfers of weight • Gothic rib vault construction ○ Center stone ○ Ribs rest on piers ○ Point arches ○ Area in between ribs was brickwork called webbing Not very heavy or anything ○ One rib vault covers one bay The Flight into Egypt, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, c. 1140-1144 • Stained glass window • Stained glass window West Façade, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, France, begun c. 1134 • One of the most famous gothic cathedrals in France • An hour outside of Paris • Chartres Cathedral • First high gothic church • Dates to two different times • There was a fire in 1194 that burnt down most of the cathedral ○ Relic of the virgin's tunic when she was giving birth to Christ ○ Miraculously the relic survived ○ Believed it was a signal from the virgin Mary to rebuild the church • They just built onto the back of it • 2 towers but they don’t match ○ Took a lot of time to raise money ○ They would build one tower with some money ○ Raise some more money ○ Build a tower in the newer style that developed ○ Royal Portal, West Façade, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1145-1155 • Decoration of church portals carries on into the gothic period ○ Possibly becomes even more extensive Different churches in different time periods but same style and subject matter Prophets and Ancestors of Christ, Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral Trumeau, Saint-Pierre, Moissac Prophets and Ancestors of Christ, Royal Portal Romanesque Gothic Transition period of moving away from the Romanesque period Elongated figures Elongated figures Defined by architectural lines Defined by architectural lines Stylized and exaggerated More proportional and naturalistic Plan, Chartres Cathedral, Begun in 1194 • Portal remained from earlier church • Most of everything else was rebuilt Chartres Cathedral Cathedral of St. James Gothic Romanesque Not as narrow Narrow Doesn’t have the exaggerated nave Exaggerated nave Nave and Plan of Chartres Cathedral • Each bay has its own four-part ribbed vault ○ Allowed them to build taller • 3 stories ○ 1st is nave arcade 2nd story (was the gallery) now the triforium ○ 2nd story (was the gallery) now the triforium Used mostly for repairs Thin band between the 1st and 3rd Not really for people anymore ○ 3rd story is clerestory Windows become so tall they equal the nave arcade Aerial View of Chartres Cathedral • Façade was created at a different time then the rest of the church because the rest of the church burned down in a fire in 1194 and then was created in a high gothic style • Flying buttresses ○ Some of the weight from the interior vault is being channeled to the outside and down to the ground ○ Why renaissance architects call this style gothic Support system is on the outside of the building Thought it was hideous High Gothic Architecture • Three-story elevation • Ribbed groin vaults • Flying buttresses • Height of stained glass windows equal to height of nave Good Samaritan Window, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1200-1210 • Retained most of their original stained glass windows • 176 windows • 22,000 square feet • Have a famous blue coloring to them • Blade-like shape of the top of the window is called a lancet • Would have different narrative scenes • Design plays a big role in these windows ○ Lobes and multi-lobed designs ○ Stacked onto one another ○ Cluster medallion ○ Good Samaritan Window, Chartres Cathedral Detail of the Good Samaritan Window • They would break glass into the shapes they want • Then they would cast it in lead Rose Window and Lancets, North Transept, Chartres Cathedral • Floral motif • A little bit more different than a sort of narrative window • Placed higher in churches ○ Harder to view narratives ○ Mostly had single standing figures • Louis IX donated the money for it and the fleur de li is on it • Louis IX donated the money for it and the fleur de li is on it West Façade, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims, c. 1225 • Follows the ground plan of Chartres • Significant church for royalty ○ New kings were crowned here ○ Coronation church • Pinnacle of façade design in the gothic era ○ Getting rid of walls and emphasizing verticality ○ Most stained glass on a façade ○ Sculpture has been placed in the doorway ○ Replaced some sculpture with stained glass ○ Compartments feel stretched to be narrow and elongated ○ Connectors where lines continue upwards ○ Stone work called bar tracery Refined stone work • Importance of Mary • Importance of Mary Annunciation and Visitation, Central Portal, Reims Cathedral • There are a lot of figures along the Reims Cathedral • Annunciation ○ Angel Gabriel and Mary • Visitation ○ Mary and her cousin Elizabeth • Style of figures ○ Early gothic and high gothic ○ Becoming more naturalistic rather than elongated ○ Break away from the architecture Don’t look like columns anymore Not as constricted to the lines ○ Call the sculptor the classical master Possibly 3 different artists working on these sculptures Difference between the annunciation and the visitation □ Drapery folds and stances □ Left side becomes more popular Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1239-1248; Upper Chapel, Sainte-Chapelle • Private chapel of Louis the IX ○ Associated with a more courtly style of gothic architecture ○ Built to hold the relics he had acquired from his relative that had ruled Constantinople ○ Relics from Christ's passion Crown of thorns Sponge Part of the lance ○ Small compared to the scale of some gothic churches but still rather large ○ Queen Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX, Moralized Bible, 1226-1234 • Illuminated manuscripts continued to be popular ○ Paris was a popular place for it • Dedication page of a moralized bible ○ Has the text of the bible but also interpretations of what they meant ○ 3 volumes ○ Dedicated to Louis the IX and his mother Blanche of Castile ○ Salisbury Cathedral, England, 1220-1258 • French style • England adopted the French/gothic style almost immediately ○ Close by to Stonehenge • Built by a bishop ○ Originally had a church a town away called Sarsen ○ Decided to move to get away from the political structures ○ Basically moved the whole city and built a new church ○ Façade, Salisbury Cathedral Façade, Amiens Cathedral Another french gothic cathedral Borrowed architecture but sort of made its own Gothic architecture similarities • Pointed arches • Verticality • Stained glass Differences • Screen façade ○ Seem like it's tacked on after • More of a horizontal effect ○ Seems wider than vertical Plan and Nave of Salisbury Cathedral • Long and narrow and squared out ○ Rather than rounded off • Norman architecture • 3 story elevation but the windows aren't nearly as tall • Famous for its use of dark and light ○ Used different types of stone ○ Blackish-green color with fossilized organisms Nave of Salisbury Cathedral Nave of Chartres Cathedral Nave of Chartres Cathedral Church of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, Marburg, Germany, 1235-1283 Nicholas of Verdun, Shrine of the Three Kings, Cologne Cathedral, Germany, c. 1190-c. 1205/10 Nicholas of Verdun, Shrine of the Three Kings, Cologne Cathedral, Germany, c. 1190-c. 1205/10 Saint Maurice, Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany, c. 1240-1250 Saint Maurice, Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany, c. 1240-1250 Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany, c. 1245-1260 Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany, c. 1245-1260 Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Baptistery, Pisa, Italy, 1260 Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Baptistery, Pisa, Italy, 1260 Nicola Pisano, Annunciation, Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds, Pulpit, Baptistery, Pisa, Italy, 1260 Coppo di Marcovaldo, Crucifix, c. 1250-1270 Church of St. Francis, Assisi, Italy, 1228-1253 The Miracle of the Crib at Greccio, St. Francis, Assisi, Italy, Late 13th or early 14th century
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