NHM 361 Overview of Metabolism and Energy
NHM 361 Overview of Metabolism and Energy NHM 361
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
NHM 361 Overview of Metabolism and Energy Metabolic Pathway Metabolism is the sum of all reactions occurring in the body o Usually every reaction in the body is catalyzed by an enzyme Metabolic Pathway is a sequence of consecutive chemical reactions that convert a starting material into a product. o Anabolism- reactions involved in the synthesis of biomolecules Require energy (endergonic) o Catabolism- reactions involved in the breakdown of molecules Release energy (exergonic) Common Catabolic Pathway Stage I: Digestion of macromolecules o FatsGlycerol + Fatty Acids o Protein Amino acids o CarbohydratesMonosaccharides Stage II: Production of Acetyl CoA o H3-C-SCoA ll O Stage III: Common Catabolic Pathway o Converts the chemical energy in foods to ATP Citric Acid/Krebs’s Cycle Electron Transport Chain Oxidative Phosphorylation Energy Energy is the capacity to do work o Kinetic energy is energy in motion o Potential energy is stored energy Food contains potential energy that can be released in the breaking of bonds The main purpose of catabolic pathways is the generation of energy rich molecules of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) o Serves as source of energy for nearly all chemical reactions o Made of a ribose, triphosphate and adenine o High amounts of energy are contained in the phosphate bonds so when they are broken they release a very high amount of energy (exergonic) 1 law of thermodynamics: Energy cannot be destroyed or created but, merely transferred o Food is the source of energy that needs to be transferred into ATP for energy value Since, hydrolysis of ATP ADP is the primary means of supplying cells with energy ATP is called the energy currency of the cell Mitochondria The mitochondrion is the organelle in the cell where the most ATP is produced Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria It contains folds called cristae The process of ATP synthesis in the mitochondria is called cellular respiration Coenzymes Coenzyme A o Responsible for the transfer of acetyl groups o Seen mostly as a part of the molecule Acetyl CoA o Derived from the vitamin, pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) + o Carrier of electrons and hydrogen ions o When a substrate is oxidized, NAD becomes reduced and accepts 2 electrons and 1 hydrogen ion + - + o NAD + 2e + H NADH 2 o Derived from the vitamin, niacin (Vitamin B-3) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) o Electron carrier o Accepts 2 electrons and 2 hydrogen atoms from a substrate and become reduced to FADH 2 o FAD+ 2H +2e FADH 2 o Derived from the vitamin, riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) Energy Balance Energy balance is achieved when a person’s intake of energy from food equals energy expenditure o Positive energy balance- Intake more than expenditure o Negative energy balance- Intake less than expenditure Chronic negative energy balance can lead to malnutrition and consumption of lean tissue by the body to produce energy 1 calorie= amount of heat/energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius Calorimetry is measured heat in Joules or calories o Calorimeters are devices that measure the heat of a reaction o Catabolism of fat produces more energy than catabolism of protein or carbohydrate Fat produces 9 Cal/g Protein and Carb produce 4 Cal/g Measuring Energy Expenditure Indirect calorimetry can measure resting energy expenditure (REE) o REE is the energy expenditure at rest with no activity in 23 degrees Celsius o Total energy expenditure=Resting energy expenditure+ Activity energy expenditure+ Thermic Effect of Food o REE is derived from carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption Respiratory quotient is the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed o RQ greater than one suggests fat storage
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