Rebecca Gurney - University of Toledo - PSY 2510 Class Notes
Rebecca Gurney - University of Toledo - PSY 2510 Class Notes Psychology 2510
Popular in Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 2510 at University of Toledo taught by Rebecca L. Gurney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 3: The First Two Years Body and Brain • Body Changes • Height and Weight • 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches at birth • Lose weight the first few days then gain it back • Weight doubles by the 4th month, triples by age 1 and quadruples by age 2 • Norm: An Average, or standard, measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population. • Head – sparing • A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damag ed by malnutrition • A brain triples in weight during the first 2 years and the circumference increases from 14 to 19 inches • Brain Development • Structures • Neuron • One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain • Cortex • The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing involve the cortex. • Prefrontal Cortex • Area in the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control. • Axon • A fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons • Dendrite • Receive incoming messages. • Synapse • The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the other neurons • Neurotransmitter • A brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron • Neurons proliferate before birth • Pruning occurs • Where unused dendrites, axons, synapses shrink and die due to lack of activation • Visual and auditory areas proliferate and are pruned first • Stimulation • Shaken baby syndrome • A life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections. • Even if the baby is not killed, high levels of stress hormones can damage the brain • Sleep Patterns • Newborns sleep about 17 hours a day in 1 to 3 hour segments • REM (rapid eye movement) sleep • A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves. • As the brain matures, the child develops a more regular sleeping pattern • Perceiving and Moving • Sensation • The response of a sensory system when it detects stimulus. • Perception • The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. • Hearing • Develops during the last trimester of birth • Most advanced of the newborn’s senses • Pick up on characteristics of language before they understand it • Vision • Least mature sense at birth • Gradually learn and become capable of tracking objects • Binocular vision • The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image. • Appears about 3 months • Seeing allows your visual cortex to develop • Sudden drops • Visual cliff • 6 mos - - will crawl across • 10 mos - - will not crawl across • Less experience increases the chances of crawling over • Smelling, Tasting, Touching • Taste of sugar and an assuring look from a caregiver is a good pain reliever. • Babies respond differently to tense or relaxed touch • Motor Skills • The abilities needed to move and control the body • Learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelids. • Reflexes • Oxygen supply • Breathing • Hiccups • Sneezes • Thrashing • Body temperature • Cry • Shiver • Tucking of the legs • Push away • Feeding • Sucking • Rooting • Swallowing • Cry • Spitting up • Other • Babinski • Stepping • Swimming • Palmar grasp • Moro • Gross motor skills • Physical abilities involving large body movements such as walking and jumping. • Sitting up • Crawling • Walking • End of each day, and infant walks the distance of 29 football fields • 3 Interacting Factors • Muscle Strength • Brain Maturation • Practice • Fine motor skills • Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and finger, such as drawing and picking up a coin. • 2 months → wave their arms • 3 months → touch something in reach, but can not grab it • Sticky mittens allowed them to develop grasping sooner • 4 months → grab, but their timing is off • 6 months → reach and grab things that are the right size • The Senses and Social Perceptions • Breast milk is a mild sedative • Connects pleasure with taste, touch, smell and sight. • The 5 senses allow for 3 goals: • Social interaction (respond to familiar caregivers) • Comfort (to be soothed amid the disturbances of infant life) • Learning • Surviving in Good Health • Immunization • A process that stimulates the body’s immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. Immunization may be accomplished naturally (by having the disease) or through vaccination (by having an injection) • Polio had almost been eliminated until there was a fear of side effects of vaccinations • Rubeola vaccines • <100 cases in 2003 • 53,683 cases in 1997 • Infants may become irritable or feverish • Adequate Nutrition • “Breast is best” • Breast-fed babies are less likely to develop allergies, asthma, and heart disease • Colostrum • A thick, high-calorie fluid • Produced for newborns • Malnutrition • Protein-calorie malnutrition • Stunting • Wasting • 3 ways infants suffer: • Brain development • Disease prone • Direct diseases - - marasmus and kwashiorkor • Infant Cognition • Sensorimotor Intelligence • Piaget’s term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development • Stage 1: Stage of reflexes • Lasts 1 month • Movements become deliberate instead of reflexive • Sensations become perceptions • Stage 2: First acquire adaptations • 2 types of adaptation: • Assimilation: Where you apply your existing knowledge onto a new object (suckling) • Accommodation: • Example • Sucking - - babies suck everything → assimilation • Accomodate by changing their sucking patter for a bottle and pacifier • Stage 3 • 4 to 8 months • Make interesting events last • Keep waving their arms to make the rattle work • Stage 4: New adaptation and anticipation • 8 months – 1 year • Child engages in goal-directed behavior • Object permanence: When a child realizes that something exists even though they can’t see it anymore • Stage 5: New means through active experimentation • Builds on the goal-directedness of Stage 4 • Actions are expansive, purposeful and creative • “little scientist” • The stage 5 toddler (12-18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial and error in active and creative exploration. • Stage 6: Think in terms of consequences • Mental combinations • Intellectual experimentation • Anticipate and imagine • Deferred imitation • Where a toddler repeats a behavior that they saw a couple of days before • Information Processing • A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output. • Memory • Infantile amnesia - - can’t remember anything until age 2 • Conditions that allow memory • Experimental conditions are similar to real life • Motivation is high • Retrieval is strengthened by reminders and repetition • 3 month olds learned to kick to make their mobile move • Reminder session: retrieval is strengthened • Couldn’t kick, but could see the mobile move • Language Learning • Early Communication • Babies prefer to hear speech over other sounds • Need to hear speech in order to learn it • Child-directed speech (also called parentanese and motherese) • The high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants. • Babies prefer this • Babbling • The extended repetition of certain syllables such as ba -ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old. • Towards the end of the first year, babbling begins to sound like the native language • Babies communicate through body language (e.g. pointing, pushing away unwanted food) • First Words • Learn 1-2 words a week • Comprehend 10 times more words than they say • Once the child hits 50 words, their vocabulary grows 50 to 100 words per month • Holophrase • A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought • “Dada!” • “Dada?” • “Dada.” • Cultural Differences in Language Use • Naming explosion • A sudden increase in an infant’s vocab, especially in the number of nouns, that begins are about 18 months of age. • Between 12 and 18 months in every language, the infant can name caregivers, siblings and sometimes pets • English speaking infants use more nouns where Korean and Chinese infants use more verbs. • English verbs are harder to learn due to sentence position and irregular verbs • English has more emphasis on things where East Asian culture emphasizes interactions • Acquiring Grammar • All the devices, by which words communicate meaning. • Sequence, prefixes, suffixes, intonation, loudness, verb forms, pronouns, negations, prepositions, and articles • Toddlers demonstrate their knowledge when they follow accepted word order • Baby cry • More juice • Grasp of grammar correlates with size of vocabulary • Hypotheses about Language Development • Hypothesis 1: Infants need to be taught • The more the mother talked to and interacted with her infant, the better their language and comprehension skills would be. • Hypothesis 2: Infants teach themselves • Language acquisition device (LAD) • Chomsky – allows you to acquire language. • Caregiver speech nurtures and facilitates the language the infant has already acquired • Need dendrites to grow, mouth muscles to strengthen, neurons to connect, and speech to be heard • Hypothesis 3: Social impulses foster infant language learning • Babies can understand inflections of statements without having to understand any of the words. • Learn associations by pointing • Combining All 3 Approaches • Behaviorist reinforcement works for young children • Social learning works in older children • Genetic works in the background in both Chapter 4: The First Two Years Psychosocial Development • Emotional Development • Infants’ Emotions • Start with pleasure and pain • Social smile: Genetically programed to smile • Laughter appears at about 2 or 4 months • Anger is triggered by frustration that occurs by 6 months • Sadness occurs in the first few months and is triggered by elevated cortisol • Fear • 2 kinds of social fear • Stranger wariness: an infant no longer smiles at any friendly face, but instead cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close, too quickly. • Separations anxiety: tears, dismay, or anger occurs when a familiar caregiver leaves. • 1 year olds will fear anything unexpected in addition to strangers • Toddler’s Emotions • 2nd year • Anger and fear become less frequent, but more focused • New emotions appear: pride, shame, embarrassment and guilt • Require awareness of other people • American families encourage pride where Asian families discourage it • Can display the entire spectrum of emotions • Self-Awareness: A person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people. • Occurs about 15-18 months • 1rst four months’ infants see themselves as a part of their mothers • Mirror Recognition • Lewis and Brooks experiment 1978 • Put a rod dot on babies 9-24 months old • Babies younger than 12 months did not recognize that the dot was on them. • Babies 15 to 24 months touched their noses with curiosity and puzzlement • Self-recognition in the mirror and photographs usually occurs at 18 months • Demonstrated by pretending and first-person pronouns (I, me, mine, myself, my) • Brain Maturation • Stress • Hypothalamus will grow more slowly in infants that were stressed. • High levels of stress hormones can cause emotional impairment • Ways to reduce stress in infants: • Provide new mothers with abundant help and emotional support. • Kangaroo care: father holds baby against a bare chest • Temperament • Inborn differences between on person and another in emotions, activity and self-regulation. • The New York Longitudinal Study • 4 categories of infants • Easy, 40% • Difficult, 10% • Slow to warm up, 15% • Hard to classify, 35% • Social impulses • Anterior cingulate gyrus → directly connected to emotional regulation • Certain people or elicit certain emotions • Development of Social Bonds • 3 Processes of social Development • Synchrony • A coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange or responses between a caregiver and an infant. • Begins with parents imitating infants • Parents do not really talk and smile at the baby until it begins to smile at them • Still-face technique • An experimental practiced in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction. • Makes the baby upset and stressed • Attachment • According to Anisworth, “an affectional tie” that an infant forms with a caregiver – a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time • Takes over synchrony when the baby begins to crawl • Attached behaviors • Proximity • Seeking behaviors • Approach and follow a caregiver • Contact • Maintaining behaviors • Touching, snuggling, and holding • A securely attached toddler explores, but looks back at the caregiver • 4 types of attachment: • Secure attachment (type B): A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his o r her caregiver. • Caregiver becomes a base for exploration • Insecure-avoidant attachment (type A): a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with a caregiver, a when the infant avoids seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return. • Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment (type C): a pattern of attachment in which an infant’s anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists’ and seeks contact or reunion • Disorganized attachment (type D): a type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return. • Strange Situation • A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants reactions to the stress of carious adults coming and goings in an unfamiliar playroom. • Key behaviors • Explorations of the toys: a secure toddler plays happily • Reactions to the caregiver’s departure: a secure toddler misses the caregiver • Reaction to the caregivers return: a secure toddler welcomes the caregiver’s reappearance • Social Referencing • Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else’s expressions and reactions • Stereotypical belief that childcare is the domain of the mother; happy husbands tend to be more involved • Benefits of close relationships with the father • Help child modulate their anger • Teach infants the proper expressions of emotions • Encourage infants to explore • Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development • Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud • Oral Stage • Mouth is the infant’s primary source of gratification. • If an individual is forced out of the stage too soon, then they will have an oral fixation and seek mouth related pleasure that they were denied in infancy • Anal Stage • Pleasure come from the anus, particularly from the sensual pleasure of bowel movements and the psychological pleasure of controlling them. • If toilet training is too strict or begins too soon, they may develop an anal personality • Erikson • Trust vs. mistrust • First crisis of psychosocial development • Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met. • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Second crisis of psychosocial development • Toddlers either succeeds or fails in gaining a sense of self -rule over their actions and their bodies • U.S. promotes autonomy; China promotes shame • • Behaviorism • Social learning • The acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others. • Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment • Parenting • Proximal parenting • Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching. • Children are less self-aware and more compliant • Experience more separation anxiety • In a proximal culture children are more guided like the Mayans • Distal parenting • Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching. • Children are more self-aware and less obedient • Experience less separation anxiety • Practiced by Western cultures and force things like being in a car seat, stroller or behind a gate • Cognitive Theory • Working model: a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. • Model: • Working: • Humanism • Hierarchy of needs • Babies → physiological • Parents → love/belonging or success/essteem • Evolutionary Theory • 2 needs: survival and reproduction • Oxytocin • Allocare: care by other besides that mother and father • Infant Day Care • Comparison • Day care with strangers is common in France, Israel, and Sweden - - subsidized by the government, but scarce in India, Ethiopia and Latin American nations where it is not subsidized • Canada: 70% of children are cared for exclusively by their mothers the first year • U.S.: 80% are cared for by someone else in their first year - - father • Non-relative care • More than half of 1 year olds in the U.S. are in “regularly scheduled” nonmaternal care • Family day care • Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a women who is paid to provide it. • Cared for in a home of a nonrelative • Infants and toddlers may get less attention and picked on by older kids • Center day care • Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults for many children • Usually the children are grouped by age, the day-care center is licensed, and providers and trained and certified in child developm ent. • Effects of Infant Day Care • Difficult to study these effects because it is unethical to randomly assign infants to various kinds of care • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development • Found that infants cognitively benefit in language from day care • Infants are securely attached to their mom • Boys are more affected by nonmaternal care than girls - - became more quarrelsome and had more conflicts Memory – Remember events, places and especially people
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