Week 2 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chalcedonia Neufeld on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHE 363 at Portland State University taught by Claire Wheeler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
PHE 363- Communicable & Chronic Disease Prof. Claire Wheeler CRN# 13220 Date: Monday October 3, 2016 Innate Immune System (continued from previous lecture) -Fights antigens that are on viruses, fungi, bacteria -You are immune to antigenic particles -Only mediated by Phagocytes (cells that engulf/eat other cells) *Proliferation & Activation of cells Turning off an Immunological ResponseYou must remove the antigen that started the response in the first place. Mechanisms: Cell Membrane Chemical Communication ‘on cell membrane’ Cytokines & Cytokine Functions (proteins) ‘Amplify/Prolong immune response until antigen is removed from the body’. Bind to receptors- communication packets that go from one cell to the other. (Not specific for pathogens/Produce effects by binding to receptors) Machrophages spit out cyctochines, a general/local “high alert” for foreign invader. Immune Function: Defense against Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites, Cancer, abnormal cells, worn out cells (recycle)-Maintaining environment of healthy body. Recognition: “Self vs. Non-Self” cells All cells have markers on the surface htat help identify them (HLA antigens) Receptors of immune cells are specific Recognition mainly occurs in the Thymus (T-Cells must be able to recognize self) Antigen: A particle that triggers an immune response Antigens are what you are immune to! (Immune to these and the structure of whatever virus a vaccine you get-Ex. Measles) If Antigens are stable-you can be protected for life! o *Main characteristicSize & Structural Complexity * Large molecules Complex structure (must have the exact structure of the antigen to fit) Protein/Carbohydrates (changing 1-2 protein amino acids coding can change an antigen into a virus creating a pandemic) Accessible to immune cells Foreign Influenza Constantly changes its DNA/RNA mutation which produces a new infection each year. More on Innate Immunity & Macrophages o -Specificity only goes as far as okay or not okay! (Good vs. bad cells) o -Rapid speed of Action- swelling/pain kicking in when you get a vaccine required to have a rapid/big response in order to create a good immunity o -No Memory! o Macrophage Carry bad cells to a lymph node in order to present the bad cells to T-Cells o *Focus on the Macrophage and other Phagocytes* PMN-Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes & NK Natural Killer Cells: Bacterial Infection present Glial Cells: Highly specialized for cleaning things like Alzheimers. But if they are not turned off, can lead to Alz. Macrophages (Big Eater) o Mature, tossue residing form of the monocyte o General scavenger of the bodys cells o Aggressive/powerful, Move like amoeba o Start as a ball-can extend arms to “grab” foreign/bad cells o Monocyte = inactive form of a Macrophage Steps of Immune Response **WATCH KHAN VIDEO** 1.Rolling, 2. Activation, 3.Adhesion, 4.Extravasation Epithelial Cells-Damage to the epithelial barrier/break through first line of defense Local infection-Foreign antigens present (dirt/bacteria/microbes and damaged tissue) Macrophage leaves capillary (side street roadway) and enters damaged tissue areacapillaries are high pressure and you only need some capillary ingredients/requires chemotaxis so that you don’t lose more blood than necessary. Macrophage Movement: *Chemotaxis* Macrophages can leave the blood stream to enter tissue Attracted by chemicals released by pathogens and damaged tissues Can squeeze into tiny spaces and b/w epithelial cells of the capillaries Does not enter capillary again, stays in the tissue due to hydrostatic pressure and eventually enters the Lymph fluid, swept into Lymphatic vessel, to Lymph Nodes Chemotaxis Extravasasion: Adhesin-signal Integrin-signal Macrophage Ingestion Lysosomes-to break something open, a package of Hydrogen Peroxide and Bleach used to kill via chemical warfare. As the macrophage engulfs the target/bad cell, the lysosomes line up along the microtubules surround the bad cell, drill holese into the cells target cell membrane and squirt in their chemical the bad cell then dissolves into ingestible pieces. *Required for deconstruction of target cells = Hydrogen Peroxide & Bleach Macrophage Disposal aka Endosomes: Endo(inside)some( _________) o Reuses some of the molecules o Puts some pieces on the surface to activate other cells- “Presentation of Antigen” o Packages debris for expulsion from the bodySputum & Feces o Endosomes doesn’t open up until the H.Peroxide is used up to prevent H.Peroxide from being spilled out into the body freely Inflammation Responses: IL-1, IL-6 & TNFalpha ***QUIZ QUESTION!!!! Fever!!! Higher temp. activates macrophages How your brain makes you have a fever Cutaneous vasoconstriction-Less blood going to the skin Reduce Sweating-sweating takes heat with it when it evaporates Increase Brown adipose tissue metabolism-takes immense sugar and E to burn brown fat