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CHSTU 255, Week 1

by: Karrina Tremblay

CHSTU 255, Week 1

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > > CHSTU 255 Week 1
Karrina Tremblay
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About this Document

Introduction, Notes taken on lectures each day
Elizabeth Salas
Class Notes
Mexican, Women's History





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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karrina Tremblay on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Washington taught by Elizabeth Salas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see MEX WM PAST PRES in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
First day: Introduction to the Course (note: teacher only talked the first day and these are the notes taken off her lecture) Role of women in the migration ­ Lost sense of identity ­ Driven by desire for a homeland ­ Mechicas moved from Aztlan to Anahuac ­ Women gave them symbols they wanted for a homeland ­ 1960s­1970s time of change for Spanish immigrants ­ 1960s young people who didn’t want to be Spanish or American ­ Looking for new identity, rejected being Spanish, changed Spanish ­ Hated past culture, stopped border boundaries, called themselves migrants ­ Lived in LA area ­ 1970s women wanted to tell their story, became Chicanas ­ Used nawat words, fused Spanish and English  ­ Nepantla: the “in­between” generation, both Mexican and American ­ Women provided the majority of the food, domesticated by Mexican women ­ Civilizations were built on Mexican women’s domestication of food ­ Metate: grinding stone, women enslaved as food grinders ­ Cent: production of food ­ Men took over planting of food, women forced to take over the grinding of cent ­ Men never grind cent, that a women’s job ­ Created gender hierarchy, males become dominant ­ La Llorona: the weeping women who kills men and children, used by women as their  ability to have control, story created by women ­ Ex: children shouldn’t go into caves or wander alone or else la Llorona would kill them,  men shouldn’t be wandering late at night or else la llorona would kill them ­ Women use stories to welcome other women ­ Mexican women split into 2: the good women and the bad women ­ Good women: no political involvement, women supposed to obey men ­ Malinche: used by men as derogatory term, women found her inspirational for feminism ­ Chicanas reinterpreted lady Guadalupe, pictured as patriarchy’s worst nightmare, spoke  various Hispanic languages, told people to slow down their speech and got rid of their  lisp ­ Mother of first mixed people, was also religious figure ­ Malinche told Christianity as the story of a mother and her children, said the mother had  3 boys­ mother is lady of Guadalupe­ she is the cosmic mother/blessed mother ­ Women went to Isla de Mujeres to pray for fertility and wellness in bearing children ­  Every house had a bath house (whom­like house) brought back to cosmic mother, being  reborn, cleanliness is godly mother worship ­ Developed idea of cleanliness, bathing once a day ­ Spaniards believed good Christians smelt, would bathe every so often, should be filthy Day 1: October 3, 2016  Centli: Corn  Temazcal: A temazcal ([temasˈkal]) is a type of sweat lodge, which originated with pre­ Hispanic Indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica. In ancient Mesoamerica it was used as part of a curative ceremony thought to purify the body after exertion such as after a battle or a  ceremonial ball game. It was also used for healing the sick, improving health, and for  women to give birth.  Tepeyac: women only place, “holy” place  Women maintained this “holy” place by only going when they were all menstruating and  would drop blood every where so it smelled and men wouldn’t want to go   Isle de la Mujeres: women only island, also “holy” place  Name changes from Mexico – Mejico, Mexicanos – Mejicas, Corn – Centli  Metate: grinding stone, 20­30 pounds  Ground cent(corn) with metate, took 3­6 hours per day  Women ground cent from the age of 8 to the day they die, this didn’t change until the  1940s, was upheld for thousands of years  The 3 sisters (trinity): planting corn, beans, and   Men never ground cent, that was women’s job  Men made metates, there are books on men making metates but not women grinding cent  What are women thinking while they ground cent?  Women were beaten if they didn’t produce enough ground cent, forced to grind cent  alone, forbidden for women to gather  Men with authority forced women into constant labor of grinding cent  Women responsible for 80% of agriculture  Males got meat, only 20% of food supply  Women grew all plants, discovered ways to increase their agriculture such as increasing  size of centi (corn)  Migrating women used smooth stones to grind, couldn’t bring large equipment   Women discovered that nutrition gained from mixing cent with limestone and ash  Women discovered that using menstrual blood and saliva would help fertilize cent and  increase their growth  Over time, men became planters but still refused to grind cent  How did men get away with only doing the planting?   Men conspired together, decided to kill all women over the age of 13 and told younger  generation that women had always been the grinders and had always been subject to male dominance  Males took pouches from the dead women that held seeds and became the planters  Males always forced women to be separated from each other as they ground cent so that  they couldn’t conspire together  Transition to male growers was 8­10 thousand years ago  Women only wanted a few children, lots of work and hard to travel with  Women found that yams could be used in a concoction as birth control  From grinding cent, women’s hands grew bloody and infected and would need this into  the dough of cent, plus saliva  Adding gross substances into food was an act of defiance by women  Women spread stories through children  Used stories to control children and men, also a form a psychological release  Women domesticate the chiles, easy way to add other disgusting substances into food  Women would undermine health to gain control  Marriage used for stability, kept tribes in peace  Men would ask counsel to marry a women, counsels would decided whether compatible  or not, women had option to say no  Women married at 20, males married at 22  When Spanish came, they wanted to marry younger women in their teens, marriage age  changed th  15  birthday was special because women could then marry  Divorce was an option, mainly occurred because one partner was “lazy”  Infertility was blamed on the women  Women would dry out umbilical cords and use them in remedies  Women were the constructers of the home  Was there a women’s room?  Iroquois special: women planted and grinding, yet also had power because they  controlled agriculture, food, and clothing  Women allowed to chose chiefs  Men had to ask women to go to war because women provided food and moccasins  When men tried to take away power, women decided they would abort current children  and not have any more, ending race  Women worked together, were not enslaved by their work like mexicanas were  Snakes are related to birth, women are like snakes in that they can reproduce, each molt  of a snake is like a new life that women bring into the world  It was believed that women could command the snakes, have befriended the snakes  Snake on the Mexican flag is a symbol of Europe dominance and their hatred of snakes in the land, snake is disgraced in Mexican flag  Snakes offer themselves as food  Day 2: October 5, 2016  Women generalized as “mother”  Antelope Island/ Utah­ “sacred place” for people who were exiled  Caves: coming from a women, cave=womb  7or8 Caves= tribal groups, their beginning mother, they migrated to find a home land  Prophecy (lady) at sacred place for where to go as a home  Prophecy: when you see the eagle on the cactus, that is the symbol for your homeland  Prophecy impossible because eagle would never land on cactus, cactus have thorns  Prophecy maker only told this to people to get them out of the area (the unwanted people)  Coatlicue: prophecy maker  During the migration of 7 or 8 people, women were leaders  All mechicas were friends with things that crawled on the ground (snakes, scorpions)  Men decided to befriend things in the sky, would follow them, also followed marine  animals  Snakes in statues because of women’s friendships with snakes  Women guided people through the migration because of their snake friendships  Women pass their power only to other women, their daughters  Men like hummingbirds, they are feisty creatures who protect themselves against bigger  animals  402 children: 1 daughter who is the eldest   402 son: Huitzilopochtli­ comes out of the womb fully armed with weapons, father is a  feather that was dropped and impregnated   Son told mother that oldest daughter (Coyalxhauqui) was being rebellious against mother, but daughter knew son only wanted to bring war and sacrifice people  Only daughter: Coyalxhauqui  Other 400 brothers took sides with Coyalxhauqui, however mother believed  Huitzilopochtli, shows mother’s trust in men  Huitzilopochtli decided to kill Coyalxhauqui, she was the first human sacrifice  Sacrifice shows threat of killing women who defy men  Fire snake: weapon of Huitzilopochtli, also has magic headdress that kills  Shield: symbol of warrior  Defensive warrior (women): defends the women and children against war, last group of  fighters   Offensive warrior (men): go out to battle, looking to fight, always wanting death and  sacrifice  Without women and children the tribe is killed off, become extinct  Chimalma: Symbol of women defensive warrior  Mexicans didn’t die off after Spanish invasion because of the women’s tactics in  defensive war  Women would poison the food that was given to the Spaniards who invaded Mexico,  used slow acting poison so that they couldn’t be suspected   Would put this poison affectively in Rum  Malinalxochitl was one of the few surviving members of Centzon Huitznahuas  Huitzilopochtli was afraid of Malinalxochitl, he took the men and snuck off to leave her  Malinalxochitl was left in malinalco, her city  Huitzilopochtli decapitated Malinalxochitl’s son, but could not defeat her  Women forced to marry Spaniards to bring stability and peace  Anajuac: Basin of Mejico, had water  Aztlan: Utah or Chaco Canyon  X Mitlan: underworld (in the pacific northwest)  Tenochtitlan: the capital, civilization  In search of a homeland, Mejicas moved from Aztlan to Anajuac, looking for the eagle  sitting on a cactus  Priest said they saw the eagle on a cactus in the basin of Mejico, lied but nobody would  question a priest, area had water and animals which is good for survival  Religious numbers 9, 13: 9 months of pregnancy, women get period at 13  Blood Sacrifice is men’s duplication of menstruation, women thought to be powerful  (could reproduce and live while bleeding which is periods) and men wanted to be like  women and gain that power  Earth Mother  Coyalxhauqui (daughter) became the moon  Stars are the other 400 brothers  Huitzilopochtli became the sun  Tonatiuh: Sun God, Father god (ideology destroyed by spaniards)  Currently still a missing father for the people of Mexico Women are involved in war, however not directly. Their “defensive” war protected the mejicas  race from extinction.


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