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Bio. exam 2 week one notes

by: Allison Jackson

Bio. exam 2 week one notes Bio 1020

Allison Jackson
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these are the first notes that cover what will be on our second exam. The information is from chapter 6.
Principles of Biology I
Dr. Krishnamurthy
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jackson on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Krishnamurthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Sept. 27 Chapter 6 notes: A T our of the Cell Facts to know :  A eukaryotic cell is an animal cell.  Cell membrane = plasma membrane  Nuclear membrane = nuclear envelope  Cytoplasmic streaming = because cell walls are adjacent, small materials can pass from one cell to another easily.  In order for a cell to function efficiently, it must be small. The smaller cells are and the more there is of them means that there is more membrane to be penetrated easily. Substances can get to the center of a cell more quickly and easily  Cisternal space = internal space in the endoplasmic reticulum  Pseudopodia = false feet  Autophagy = consuming one’s self ORGANELLES  Endoplasmic Reticulum o an extensive network of membranes o Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) = has ribosomes attached to it  bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins  Distributes transport vesicles (secretory proteins surrounded by membranes)  Makes membranes for the cell o Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) = has no ribosomes attached to it  Synthesizes lipids, phospholipids, steroids  Participates in carbohydrate metabolism  Detoxifies drugs and poisons  Stores Calcium o Endoplasmic = “within cytoplasm” o Reticulum = “network”  Cellulose o Building material in cell walls  Ribosomes o The site of protein synthesis o constructed in nucleolus o has 2 subunits, a larger (made in nucleolus) and a smaller o carries out protein synthesis in cytosol and on ER o free = floating o bound = attached to ER  Lysosomes o help in breaking down cell parts o Destroy cells or foreign matter that the cell has absorbed by phagocytosis o Membrane bound o Contains digestive enzymes o pH of 5 o faulty lysosomes can cause diseases such as:  Pompe’s Disease = enzyme to break down carbohydrates is missing. Glycogen accumulates in liver and damages it.  Tay Sach’s Disease = lysosomes accumulate in the brain, damaging it  vacuoles o central  in plants  very large  full of water o food  formed by phagocytosis o contractile  gathers access water and squeezes it out of the cell. (Osmoregulation = the regulation of water in a cell by contractile vacuoles)  Peroxisome o aid in detoxing parts of the cell o catalyze certain reactions that break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen o By-product of reaction is H 2 2 o Catalase breaks down H O into water and oxygen 2 2 o membrane bound vesicles o contain enzymes o Not part of the endomembrane system?? (no one knows yet) o also known as “microbodies” o glyoxysomes = in plants contain enzymes for converting fats to carbohydrates o peroxisomes = contain oxidative enzymes and catalase  Mitochondria o powerhouse of the cell; form ATP o outer membrane defines shape o inner membranes that fold o inside is matrix o intramembrane space is between the two membranes  Centrisome o aid in cell division  Flagellum o tail-like structure, aids in cell movement, usually only on one side of the cell  Nucleus o contains most of the cell’s genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle o Stores genetic material o Contains chromatin  Nuclear envelope o double membrane that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm  Pore o spaces in the membrane of the nuclear envelope which regulate transport into and out of the nucleus  Chromosomes o Long thread like association of genes, composed of chromatin; humans have 46  Chromatin o A complex of DNA and histone proteins which makes up chromosomes  Chloroplasts o In plant cells o Used for photosynthesis o Circular disks in chloroplasts = grana o Stack of grana = granum o Contains innter and outer membranes o Inner membranes = thylakoid o Space between membranes = intramembrane space o Stroma = liquid that fills chloroplasts o One of 3 types of plastids:  Chloroplasts  Chromoplasts  Amyloplasts (leucoplasts) –stores starch; has a white color  Golgi Apparatus o Functions :  Modifies products of the ER  Manufactures certain macromolecules  Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles o Made of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae  Cilia o Locomotory organelle o Creates currents o Small, hair-like structures covering a cell  Centriole o Only in animal cells o Pair of cylindrical structures made of microtubule triplets (share walls) arranged in a ring  Microtubules o Made of alpha and beta microtubules o Help internal support of cell o Form railroad track-like pathways to help substances move  Microfilaments o Aid in movement  Cell membrane o Made of a phospholipid bilayer (hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tail) o Regulates what comes into and out of the cell o Has proteins embedded in it  Cell wall o In plants is made of cellulose o In fungi is made of chitin o Tender in younger plants  Proteoglycan o Substance made of a protein with sugars attached to it  Fibronectin o Connects the extracellular matrix to the cell membrane Endomembrane system consists of:  Nuclear envelope  Endoplasmic reticulum  Golgi apparatus  Lysosomes  Vacuoles  Plasma membrane  (Peroxisomes) Peroxisomes are sometimes considered a part of the endomembrane system, but not always. No definite answer to whether they are or are not just yet! These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles (membrane bound sack)


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