Psych 102 week 6 notes
Psych 102 week 6 notes Psych 102
Popular in Honors Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 102 at Towson University taught by Amy L. Bennet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
C. Perception 1. TopDown Processing The perceiver’s previous experience and expectations alter perception a. Reversible figures Figures that can be perceived 2 different ways b. Change blindness/intentional blindness The inability to detect changes in an object or scene We perceive what we expect to see (someone still with braces) Inattentional blindness Miss something because you were distracted (gorilla video) Important in movies and TV c. Context effects We perceive things differently depending on context Things are easier to perceive in their normal context Often see what we expect based on context It is easier to find a letter in certain context than in others To blame for typos Called Topdown processing because it goes from higher processes to touch. Examples affecting other senses HearingBa/Fa (McGurk Effect) Temperatureput one had in warm water, one hand in cold water then put them both in room temperature water: they will feel different Interpreting homonymsability to determine the difference between things like rose and rows when you are just hearing the words in context d. Expert effects Blinksculpture Other examples? Musicians can hear other tones, wine tasters notice more, viewing an MRI Don’t know why they know something is off, but can’t say why and what 2. BottomUp Processing Brain combines small pieces of information to form a complete perception Mostly focus on edges, corners, contours, etc. Feature Analysis Recognize each individual feature in order to recognize the object For example, the horizontal and vertical lines in a T Evidence: Hubel and Wiesel (Nobel prize winners) Found simple and complex cells in the visual cortex Respond to lines in particular orientations (edge detectors) and movement in certain directions Discovered this in visual study with cats 3. Gestalt Principles Group things visually based on Similarityexample: uniforms Proximity Closureif you have something that is not closed, your brain figures out what it is Continuitywe look at things as straight lines or grooved curves, not obscure shapes Common fate – things that move together are grouped together (marching band, birds flying south, school of fish) 4. Depth cues Binocular (can only see if using both eyes) Two eyes Retinal disparity – each retina receives a slightly different images Brain uses difference to interpret distance View master Monocular depth cues: all can be perceived with one eye, in paintings and drawings Linear perspectivelines meet Texture gradient things appear smaller in the distance and you lose the texture/detail Height in planeimage appears to go up in the distance Interpositionsomething closer will block ability to see thing behind it Relative sizethings further away appear smaller than close up Light and shadowability to see where things are because of the shadow Review Questions Give two examples of the effects of topdown processing. Which Gestalt principle explains the use of uniforms? What is retinal disparity? List two monocular depth cues. IV. Consciousnessa person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind: what they are thinking and experiencing Occurs when awake and during vivid dreams A. Levels of Consciousness Minimal Consciousness – current awareness Lowlevel sensory awareness and responsiveness Full Consciousness Know and are able to report/state mental state for what they are feeling or seeing Selfconsciousness Attention is drawn to self as an object Example: when you are presenting in front of class and are very aware of yourself When you look in the mirror Unconscious Influential but normally inaccessible processes Freud’s view Repressed memories, deepest instincts and desires Modern view Mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors Priming, subliminal messages Altered States of Consciousness Experience differs from normal subjective experience when awake Examples: Sleep, Hypnosis, Drugs B. Sleep Studied in sleep labs Using EEG (electroencephalogram) Records electrical activity in the brain Brain activity changes during sleep Stages of Sleep Stages 1 and 2 Light sleep Small, high frequency waves Stages 3 and 4 Deep sleep Large, low frequency waves (brain resting) REM (rapid eye movement) Paralyzed Brain waves and body similar to awake Functions of Sleep Adaptive/necessary All vertebrates sleep/rest Slow wave (deep sleep) Restores brain’s energy Cognitive activity increases slow wave sleep cognitive activity uses a lot of brain energy REM Brain makes up REM when sleep deprived Necessary for memory consolidation Spend more time in REM sleep after learning Babies spend more time in REM than adults because they are learning so much Effects of Sleep Deprivation Fatigue, inattention, irritability, memory problems, make and overlook mistakes, accident prone (25% of accidents), Microsleep (fall asleep without knowing it) Sleep Disorders Insomnia inadequate sleep, most people get symptoms fewer diagnosed better treated with behavior changes rather than drugs Narcolepsy Sleep attacks (spontaneously falls asleep) Sleep paralysis (wake up momentarily paralyzed) Hypnagogic hallucinations (nightmares while awake, about to fall asleep) Treated with drugs Sleep apnea Stop breathing during sleep Treated with surgery or sleep mask REM behavior disorder act out dreams Problems with slowwave sleep Sleep walking, bed wetting, night terrors (person just screams with no nightmare) Theories of Dreaming Wish fulfillment – Freud, dreams window to unconscious desires, content is symbolic Problems solving – solve problems, analyze information, etc. Activation synthesis – frontal lobe tells a story about random activation in the pons (Hobson & McCarley) Circadian Rhythms Daily rhythms (~24 hours) Produced by SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) in hypothalamus Review Questions At which level of conscious memories are stored? REM What is an EEG? Records electrical activity in the brain and brain activity changes during sleep Used in sleep studies Which stages of sleep have large, low frequency brain waves? Stages 3 and 4 Deep sleep Large, low frequency waves (brain resting) How long is a typical sleep cycle? Which brain area works as an internal clock? What is the function of REM sleep? Necessary for memory consolidation Spend more time in REM sleep after learning Babies spend more time in REM than adults because they are learning so much Which theory of dreaming says that dreams are just the result of random neurons firing?
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