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BSC114 Chapter 10 Notes Photosynthesis

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC114 Chapter 10 Notes Photosynthesis BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC114 Chapter 10 Notes Photosynthesis
Lauren Dutch
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Notes on photosynthesis
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 10 Photosynthesis (scroll to next page) Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to create ATP; an endergonic reaction that requires an input of light energy  Autotrophs are self-feeders that use energy from nonbiological sources - Photoautotrophs use energy from light, i.e. photosynthesis - Chemoautotrophs use energy from favorable redox reactions  Heterotrophs are other feeders that obtain energy from biological sources  There are two parts to photosynthesis 1. Light reactions occur when light energy is harvested to produce ATP and NADPH 2. The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH to reduce carbon dioxide to produce sugar; aka the “dark cycle” because it can occur for a short period of time without a source of light I. Chloroplast structure A. Site of photosynthesis B. 3 membranes 1. Outer 2. Inner 3. Thylakoid a) Connected stacks of vesicles; stacks are called granum C. 3 compartments 1. Intermembrane space between inner and outer membrane 2. Stroma between the inner membrane and the thylakoid membrane 3. Thylakoid space is inside the thylakoid membrane II. Light reactions produce NADPH and ATP  ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation (including the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis)  NADP+ is reduced to NADPH by removing electrons from water A. 2 components embedded in thylakoid membrane 1. Photosystems collect light energy and convert to energized electrons 2. Electron transport chains and proton pumps B. Electron pathways 1. Photosystem II- water is split to release oxygen, light energy is captured 2. Electron transport pathway 3. Photosystem I 4. Electron transport pathway 5. To NADP+ to make NADPH C. Photosystems are complexes of proteins, chlorophylls, and other light collecting molecules that are embedded in the thylakoid membrane 1. Photosystem II = P680 because it absorbs light best at 680nm 2. Photosystem I = P700 because it absorbs light best at 700nm 3. Light is absorbed in the middle of the photosystem in a reaction center 4. Chlorophyll is a light harvesting pigment with magnesium in the center a) Chlorophyll is green because it reflects green light while absorbing blue and red light; blue and red light is used in photosynthesis but green light is not; the blue and red light energy is transferred to the photosystems’ reaction centers D. Electron transport chains are series of thylakoid membrane molecules that act as electron shuttles 1. There is one chain between photosystem II and I and one chain after photosystem I E. Electron flow can be linear or cyclic 1. Linear a) Light harvesting: light is absorbed by chlorophyll and energy is passed into the reaction center b) Electron transfer to acceptor: in the reaction center, energy is transferred to electrons, stripping them from chlorophyll to the primary acceptor c) Splitting of water: missing electrons in photosystem II are filled by splitting water and taking its electrons d) Electron transport chain: electrons are passed from one carrier to another through exergonic reactions e) Proton pumping: exergonic electron transfer drives pumping of H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane into the thylakoid space so there is a higher concentration of H+ ions in the thylakoid membrane and a lower concentration of H+ ions in the stroma f) Photosystem I: light is absorbed to boost electrons to a higher energy level and move them to a primary acceptor (1) Electrons are gained here from the electron transport chain, not from water splitting g) Electron transport chain h) Reduction of NADP+ to NADPH i) Chemiosmosis: H+ gradient is used to produce ATP as the proton motive force spins the ATP synthase rotor 2. Cyclic or “a short circuit” a) In photosystem I, the electrons return to the long electron transport chain (1) This drop in electrons is used to pump H+ ions and synthesize ATP via chemiosmosis (2) Results in extra ATP but not NADPH III. The Calvin cycle are the dark reactions because it can occur for a short period without light A. Purpose: to make carbohydrates using NADPH and ATP made in light reactions CO 2 ATP + NADPH  carbohydrates


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