Week 7 (October 02-07) - Race and Racism
Week 7 (October 02-07) - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Race, Racism, and Health – Part 1: The “End” of the Black People Samuel Morton Studies of human crania Brain size correlated with intelligence Each race suited to particular environment Josiah Nott Degeneracy of Negroes Types of Mankind (1854) o Blacks need care and owning o They could not survive without the slave order Darwin’s Evolution (1859) Change follows natural laws Natural selection fundamental No two individuals alike Characteristics passed form parent to offspring Accumulation of adaptive traits=evolution Possible to have both progress and social disruption Herbert Spencer Evolution as: o Fundamental process o Progressive (opposite to Darwin’s idea) o Struggle for survival o It is a competition (Opposite to Darwin’s idea) o Progress is only accomplished if the “fittest” dominates the weak Progress is achieved through inequality Social Darwinism Progress achieved through inequality Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Race, Racism, and Health – Part 2: Eugenics Eugenics – Why It’s Important Manipulation of real health concerns o Eugenics was a turn in the wrong direction o Undermined, with negative effects Racism as control over the body o Significance of skin color Narrative of inferiority Impact still felt today The Scientific Setting Darwin and Spencer o Social Darwinism – Humans subject to same laws as other plants and animals Winner and loser o Policies designed to reward the successful/competitive Nott and Morton o Natural inferiority o Backwardness The Historical Setting Segregated Healthcare o Different facilities and treatment=Different outcomes Not all medical facilities are using the top technology equally o Stigmatization based on social factors Medical and technological advancements uneven Public Health Focus o Social and environmental context – water supply, sewage, sanitation housing (1800-1850) o “Germ theory” and biological determinants (1900-1950) o Individual risk factors – personal behaviors and responsibility (1950-2000) Racial Bias Earlier precedents: Race=Body + Culture/Behavior People of color portrayed as disease carriers Hookworm o Parasitic infection o “Germ of laziness” – anemia o More common in African American children o *But this is the fault of segregation, health policies and white supremacy “Possibly indicates that the negro has brought it with him from Africa… and spread it broadcast through the south…we must frankly ace the fact that the negro…because of his unsanitary habit of polluting the soil…is a menace to others” o Character as the polluting factor “Safeguarding of the health of the negro [was not a] fight against disease, but against physical, mental, and moral inferiority, against ignorance and superstition, against poverty and filth” – 1951 Blood as Racial Identity Gunnar Myrdal o Economist An American Dilemma: The negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1942) Conflict between ideals and performance o What Americans want and what they are giving people o Expectations vs. Resources Race is a factor in the failure to achieve health polls Notes link between race and blood Acknowledges but not supports it The Scientific Setting Development and population control linked Thomas Malthus o An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) Population growth prevented utopia Imbalance between food growth and population growth Positive checks (natural) and preventative checks (man- made) Natural disasters/Diseases/Mortality rates (Natural) Encouraging people to have less children/Killing citizens (Man-made) The Perfect Storm Racial inferiority o Enhanced connection between race and health Concern over population Scientific advancements o Germs, blood, birth control Health: from environment to person Eugenics Eugenics is a result of this perfect storm Sir Francis Dalton – 1883 o Science of improving heredity Varied practice o Is not necessarily what Nazis did o Analysis of disease inheritance o “Better baby contests” o Forced sterilization Questions o Improvement? o Heredity? o Appropriate methods? o Authority? Ethics of the Eugenics Movement Eugenics was considered ethical o It was what was right Hippocratic ethics o “the physician will use treatment to help the sick according to his ability and judgement, but never with the view to injury or wrongdoing Aversion to the “unfit” o Encourage those with desirable genes to reproduce o Render the “unfit” incapable of reproduction