Week 7 (October 02-07) - Sex Roles
Week 7 (October 02-07) - Sex Roles ANT3302
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Monday, October 3, 2016 Labor & Gender – Industrial Economies; Global Economy, Neoliberalism, & Labor Key Ideas Productive labor: work that results in goods or services that have monetary value in the capitalist system, so garners compensation in paid wages Reproductive labor: work performed within the domestic or private sphere, such as cleaning, cooking, child care. Enables productive labor to take place Basis of Western Economies Economic liberalism: ideological belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines so the individuals (not institutions or organizations) make most economic decisions 18 century During the industrial revolution No government control Impacts of Economic Liberalism Allowed other companies to compete for good and for prices If terraces were not there to “punish” they were free That meant more workers than jobs Colonialism changes course o Belgian Congo Congolese young men who have been victim of a labor relying on violence, later referred to as “red rubber” If you couldn’t hit production you were tortured In 1908 was regulated but it lasted till 1960s Impacts of Neoliberalism Emergence of global Institutions-World Bank & International Monetary Fund o Critical to growth of global economy o Institute Structural Adjustment programs (SAPs) Structural Adjustment Programs SAPs: Economic policies often introduced as a condition for gaining a loan from the IMF o Advocates: reforms promote a more open * efficient economy o Critics: policies lead to lower economic growth & greater inequality Common conditions of SAPs: o Fiscal austerity (cut government spending to reduce budget) o End food subsidies o Raise tax revenues o Privatize state-owned industries o Open economy to free trade o De-regulate markets o Control inflation (higher interest rates, austerity) o Devalue currency Group Reflection: o Changes that SAPs require of countries in economic crisis (including changes to social services like public health programs, child care, privatization of state-owned businesses, etc.) o Effects on your own life, or the life of people you know o How might government support have changed your experiences if you relied on them SAPs & Gendered Labor SAPs disproportionately burden women o Must work more, find childcare o Feminization of poverty Feminization of Labor o Lower pay/Greater burden o Less bargaining power Women have to work endless hours at their job and then come home and keep working Impacts of SAPs Feminization of Labor Earnings of these nations lower than US, Europe, but higher than neighbors Work may provide independence, self-respect May afford freedom from parental control No advancement, improvement, education Work often temporary Often no unions, benefits, job security Neoliberal Economies Labor structures transition from Fordist accumulation to flexible accumulation o Ford: You do one thing at a time, for 40 hours a week. Repetitive Not skilled labor Monopolistic competition between companies o Flexible: Series of different companies Network of small corporations Adapt to drastic changes Internationally mobile Subtracting Neoliberal Economies & Gendered Labor Men’s typical roles o Heavy manufacturing jobs (require kill & training) o High prestige, high salary jobs o Positions of authority o Blue-collar jobs Legislator Senior officials and managers Craft and trade workers Assembler Other impacts of women o More likely to migrate, especially away from children/families o More likely to encounter harassment as workplace discipline o Decline in craft making o Development of Sex Tourism Latin America & Agribusiness Development led to large agribusinesses controlling lots of land o Peasants can’t compete, so sell land Impacts: o Women get temporary employment as farmworkers o Migrate to cities to seek jobs Africa: Agribusiness & Industrialization Agribusiness impacts: o Cash cropping strips women of autonomy & advocacy o Increase in household labor burden for women, in some areas, loss of mobility o Reduces market for sale of household crafts and goods o Loss of farmland stripped men of productive power & control as well o Power concentrated in the hands of a few India: Commercialization of an Industry Transition to mass-production of lace-impacts: o Implementation of flexible accumulation model o Women eventually pushed out of all work besides production of component parts (masculinization of nonproduction jobs) o Women work many hours for low wages, work often not recognized, despite household contributions Global Sex Tourism & Trade Foundations in colonial exploits; typically, Western men visiting developing nations o Particularly nations with unstable economies o Particularly nations in Asia, as well as some in Central and South America Trade logistics o Children in poor families may be sold into the trade o Child prostitution more common in societies where girls marry young o Some women choose to enter the trade “Other-ness” reduces stigma of men engaging in paid sex ______________________________________________________________________________ Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Structural Interpretations of Sex & Gender Structuralism & Understanding Inequality Claude Levi-Strauss: 1908-2009 Sough to understand commonalities among a wide range of societies Structuralism: theoretical paradigm that explores elements of culture by understanding them in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure Understanding structuralism Social structure: the matrix, or enclosing form, of society Uses the metaphor of language to understand social structure o Words have no inherent “value” or “meaning” o Each word is made up of smaller components that, when combines in a specific order, takes on a particular meaning to its user and audience o Words are defined through the use of other words-language defines itself in terms of itself o Like words, social structures have no inherent nature or truth o Social structures are defined, carried out, acted upon through the use of other social structure or behaviors o Structuralism tries to understand societies by examining the phonemes and morphemes of social relationships, structures and myths Structuralism & the Sees: Levi Strauss The incest taboo: Prohibition or discouragement of sexual relations between two people of close genetic relationships o Imposed differently from one society to the next, incest taboo is considered universal o Levi-Strauss explains this through social reason, rather than biology o Exchange of women as solution: prevents taboo, formalizes system of generalized reciprocity Structuralism & The Sexes: Ortner Sherri Ortner (1941-) Feminist Anthropology Primarily known for use of Practice Theory Applied Structuralism to problem of gender inequality Influenced by Pierre Bourdieu, Simone de Beauvoir Structuralism & The Sexes the Influence of Beauvoir Otner explains gender inequality through: Men & women as culture & nature (building on Levi-Strauss) Transcendent vs. immanent creativity Otner explains gender inequality through: o The Self-Other dichotomy The Influence of Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) French existentialist, novelist Author, The Second Sex (1949) o She is relative to him o Men occupy both the positive and the neutral of the binary o While women only the negative New Structuralism Kanter (1977): Workplace & Management study o Tested stereotype of micromanaging, domineering female boss o Findings: Workers with less formal power, opportunity seen as inferior leaders When promoted, tend to be numerical minorities Zimmer (1988): Men as minorities in female-dominated fields o Findings: The effect of tokenism is not gender-neutral White men in nursing frequently advance quickly More likely to socialize with doctors than female nurses Does not appear to apply to men of color Gerson (1985(: Exploring women’s roles in families o Found that socialization & adolescent experiences were not predictors of women’s strategies for work/family balance o Better predictors: professional success, marital stability
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