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Week 7 (October 02-07) - Sex Roles

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 7 (October 02-07) - Sex Roles ANT3302

Marketplace > University of Florida > Anthropology > ANT3302 > Week 7 October 02 07 Sex Roles
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 7: Neoliberalism & the Global Economy - Structuralist Approaches to Sex
Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Amber Grafft-Weiss
Class Notes
sex, roles, Anthro, Anthropology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Monday, October 3, 2016 Labor & Gender – Industrial Economies; Global Economy, Neoliberalism, & Labor Key Ideas  Productive labor: work that results in goods or services that have monetary value in the capitalist system, so garners compensation in paid wages  Reproductive labor: work performed within the domestic or private sphere, such as cleaning, cooking, child care. Enables productive labor to take place Basis of Western Economies  Economic liberalism: ideological belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines so the individuals (not institutions or organizations) make most economic decisions  18 century  During the industrial revolution  No government control Impacts of Economic Liberalism  Allowed other companies to compete for good and for prices  If terraces were not there to “punish” they were free  That meant more workers than jobs  Colonialism changes course o Belgian Congo  Congolese young men who have been victim of a labor relying on violence, later referred to as “red rubber”  If you couldn’t hit production you were tortured  In 1908 was regulated but it lasted till 1960s Impacts of Neoliberalism  Emergence of global Institutions-World Bank & International Monetary Fund o Critical to growth of global economy o Institute Structural Adjustment programs (SAPs) Structural Adjustment Programs  SAPs: Economic policies often introduced as a condition for gaining a loan from the IMF o Advocates: reforms promote a more open * efficient economy o Critics: policies lead to lower economic growth & greater inequality  Common conditions of SAPs: o Fiscal austerity (cut government spending to reduce budget) o End food subsidies o Raise tax revenues o Privatize state-owned industries o Open economy to free trade o De-regulate markets o Control inflation (higher interest rates, austerity) o Devalue currency  Group Reflection: o Changes that SAPs require of countries in economic crisis (including changes to social services like public health programs, child care, privatization of state-owned businesses, etc.) o Effects on your own life, or the life of people you know o How might government support have changed your experiences if you relied on them SAPs & Gendered Labor  SAPs disproportionately burden women o Must work more, find childcare o Feminization of poverty  Feminization of Labor o Lower pay/Greater burden o Less bargaining power  Women have to work endless hours at their job and then come home and keep working Impacts of SAPs Feminization of Labor  Earnings of these nations lower than US, Europe, but higher than neighbors  Work may provide independence, self-respect  May afford freedom from parental control  No advancement, improvement, education  Work often temporary  Often no unions, benefits, job security Neoliberal Economies  Labor structures transition from Fordist accumulation to flexible accumulation o Ford: You do one thing at a time, for 40 hours a week.  Repetitive  Not skilled labor  Monopolistic competition between companies o Flexible:  Series of different companies  Network of small corporations  Adapt to drastic changes  Internationally mobile  Subtracting Neoliberal Economies & Gendered Labor  Men’s typical roles o Heavy manufacturing jobs (require kill & training) o High prestige, high salary jobs o Positions of authority o Blue-collar jobs  Legislator  Senior officials and managers  Craft and trade workers  Assembler  Other impacts of women o More likely to migrate, especially away from children/families o More likely to encounter harassment as workplace discipline o Decline in craft making o Development of Sex Tourism Latin America & Agribusiness  Development led to large agribusinesses controlling lots of land o Peasants can’t compete, so sell land  Impacts: o Women get temporary employment as farmworkers o Migrate to cities to seek jobs Africa: Agribusiness & Industrialization  Agribusiness impacts: o Cash cropping strips women of autonomy & advocacy o Increase in household labor burden for women, in some areas, loss of mobility o Reduces market for sale of household crafts and goods o Loss of farmland stripped men of productive power & control as well o Power concentrated in the hands of a few India: Commercialization of an Industry  Transition to mass-production of lace-impacts: o Implementation of flexible accumulation model o Women eventually pushed out of all work besides production of component parts (masculinization of nonproduction jobs) o Women work many hours for low wages, work often not recognized, despite household contributions Global Sex Tourism & Trade  Foundations in colonial exploits; typically, Western men visiting developing nations o Particularly nations with unstable economies o Particularly nations in Asia, as well as some in Central and South America  Trade logistics o Children in poor families may be sold into the trade o Child prostitution more common in societies where girls marry young o Some women choose to enter the trade  “Other-ness” reduces stigma of men engaging in paid sex ______________________________________________________________________________ Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Structural Interpretations of Sex & Gender Structuralism & Understanding Inequality  Claude Levi-Strauss: 1908-2009  Sough to understand commonalities among a wide range of societies  Structuralism: theoretical paradigm that explores elements of culture by understanding them in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure Understanding structuralism  Social structure: the matrix, or enclosing form, of society  Uses the metaphor of language to understand social structure o Words have no inherent “value” or “meaning” o Each word is made up of smaller components that, when combines in a specific order, takes on a particular meaning to its user and audience o Words are defined through the use of other words-language defines itself in terms of itself o Like words, social structures have no inherent nature or truth o Social structures are defined, carried out, acted upon through the use of other social structure or behaviors o Structuralism tries to understand societies by examining the phonemes and morphemes of social relationships, structures and myths Structuralism & the Sees: Levi Strauss  The incest taboo: Prohibition or discouragement of sexual relations between two people of close genetic relationships o Imposed differently from one society to the next, incest taboo is considered universal o Levi-Strauss explains this through social reason, rather than biology o Exchange of women as solution: prevents taboo, formalizes system of generalized reciprocity Structuralism & The Sexes: Ortner  Sherri Ortner (1941-)  Feminist Anthropology  Primarily known for use of Practice Theory  Applied Structuralism to problem of gender inequality  Influenced by Pierre Bourdieu, Simone de Beauvoir Structuralism & The Sexes the Influence of Beauvoir  Otner explains gender inequality through:  Men & women as culture & nature (building on Levi-Strauss)  Transcendent vs. immanent creativity  Otner explains gender inequality through: o The Self-Other dichotomy The Influence of Beauvoir  Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)  French existentialist, novelist  Author, The Second Sex (1949) o She is relative to him o Men occupy both the positive and the neutral of the binary o While women only the negative New Structuralism  Kanter (1977): Workplace & Management study o Tested stereotype of micromanaging, domineering female boss o Findings:  Workers with less formal power, opportunity seen as inferior leaders  When promoted, tend to be numerical minorities  Zimmer (1988): Men as minorities in female-dominated fields o Findings:  The effect of tokenism is not gender-neutral  White men in nursing frequently advance quickly  More likely to socialize with doctors than female nurses  Does not appear to apply to men of color  Gerson (1985(: Exploring women’s roles in families o Found that socialization & adolescent experiences were not predictors of women’s strategies for work/family balance o Better predictors: professional success, marital stability


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