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Week 7 (October 02-07) - International Relations

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 7 (October 02-07) - International Relations INR2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > INR2001 > Week 7 October 02 07 International Relations
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 7: The Cold War and the establishment of American Hegemony
Introduction to International Relations
Zachary Selden
Class Notes
intro, International, relations
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INR2001 at University of Florida taught by Zachary Selden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Monday, October 3, 2016 Imperialism  Why talk about this period? A lot of legacies even today  Not all empires European, but lasting effects of European empires significant  Why did European powers become empires? What made it possible? o Technological innovation that happened in Europe about that time relative to other parts of the world o Ability to navigate across oceans consistently, make good maps  What do we mean by imperialism? o Control the economics and power over another region o Inherently exploitative  Europeans empires emerge from trade system  Why not just trade, why take over? o Majorly trade system, but European technological advancement meant why not use that against them too?  What effects did empires have on international relations and development of the modern state?  Empires arose for different reasons. Some needed a lot of territory and total control  Some needed small colonies, less concerned about controlling a large region o This meant different and varied legacies  E.g. Spain wanted particular commodities when invaded South America o They needed territory for those commodities  For that need labor  For that need military and political control o With that came cultural and religious control  E.g. Portugal didn’t need much for their trading ambitions France and Britain  Become big players as imperial powers after Spanish influence fades  Big competition for North America- French lose and focus on Africa  British empire becomes most influential: language, religion, governance o A lot of countries have parliamentary power, or speak English  But imperial system costs a lot to maintain and starts to fail after WWI  What effects do we see from collapsing empires then? o Their legacy is taken by the winners of WWI  Though it doesn’t make sense to people living in this territories End of Empires  What is left after WWI collapses completely after WWII  Very different process depending on colonial power- contrast Britain and France  Britain tended to have a peaceful process leaving behind some administrative capacity  France had a more violent experience in decolonization  This meant the emergence of new states that “knew” how to run the system  These empires had different ideals of what colonization was, different methods to excerpt their power and that lead to different outcomes  Was the US an imperial power? Is it still? o Very few formal colonies o A lot of influence though  Panama Canal o Informal empire back then o Now? Not an empire because it doesn’t fit our definition of imperialism Legacy of colonial period  Economic consequences: colonies used as source of raw materials and market for manufactured goods  What effect does this have on development? o Negative effects in economy and manufacturing  But colonial powers also built infrastructure, education system, etc.  Political consequences: borders drawn in ways that lead to conflict o A lot of civil wars, because the people think the power doesn’t represent their views Wednesday, October 5, 2016 The Cold War  Why is it important? o The world as we know it, is a result of it  How does it change the balance of power? o Britain and France dramatically weakened o The Soviet Union is seen as a revolutionary power with a revolutionary ideology o This becomes a concept between ideologies that dominates foreign policies  No one talked about anyone else  Was the Cold War inevitable? o Realist standpoint: yes, it was  Of course we had to fight  What new concepts does it introduce?  How does it still affect us today? Cold war  Bipolarity- two large superpowers  Contest between them would define global history for next 45 years  Was it inevitable? Two large powers destined to conflict? o Realist says take them out now, it’s your only opportunity o Eisenhower and Truman said no  What am I going to do with all of the land I then have to control?  I don’t want to be the biggest murder in history  But also a strong ideological component- contrasting worldviews o About how power should be used Different interpretations  Standard historical view: sees origins of cold war in expansionist Soviet Union o The US saw these actions as hostile o Soviet Union saw the same thing  Revisionist view: sees origins of cold war driven by US over-reaction to Soviet actions that were necessary after WWII o US is seen as a really aggressive power o In the last 30 years you have been invaded twice with horrible consequences  Of course you want to protect yourself with states like Poland, Czechoslovakia o The US can protect itself with western powers but the Soviet Union can’t?  Who is right?  Or was it all about misperception and misunderstanding? o Security dilemma o They could have talked with each other, more diplomatically  Institutions would help towards this meeting  Could there have been a more cooperative world order? Containment  Basic theory that drove US foreign policy during cold war  George Kennan o Architect of the idea of containment  Basic idea: Soviet Union is opportunistic. Deny them opportunities to expand their influence o Surround the Soviet Union with a web and limit URSS power o As the won’t fight the U.S. you need to block them  Show weakness, they expand. Show strength, they back down  So how would you implement such a policy?  Deny Soviet Union USSR as totalitarian, but would eventually collapse from the weight of its ideology  Containment was a way to avoid war and wait until the USSR fell apart from its own economic inconsistencies  Kennan a huge influence on Truman and direction of US policy Kennan’s ideas  Saw the USSR as totalitarian, but would eventually collapse from the weight of its ideology  Containment was a way to avoid war and wait until the USSR fell apart from its own economic inconsistencies  Kennan a huge influence on Truman and direction of US policy Implementation of containment  Truman doctrine: counter communist insurgencies in Europe o Try and contain these influences  Marshall plan: aid in reconstruction and redevelopment of Europe o Undercut the support that might be for communist insurrections  What are the humanitarian, economic and strategic reasons for the Marshall plan? o Ethic o PoliticalSpread of democracy around the world o Industrial capacities in the USThat need trading system  Marshall plan leads up to first big confrontation: Berlin blockade o Not very strategic but very symbolic Cold War  Levels of analysis o Systemic  World order destroyed  Germany, Japan occupied and defeated  France and Britain broke  Still in bad shape IN BAD SHAPE even if they won  Inevitable conflict between two powers  It’s just about power o Domestic  It’s about ideologies  Didn’t have to be that way  It was that way because we had an aggressive Soviet Union with an ideology that drove and motivated the conflict o Individual  Even with all that, didn’t have to happen  Stalin took the real decisions o Vicious, paranoid, murderous individual


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