New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSY Week 6 Part 3 Sleep

by: merlec16

PSY Week 6 Part 3 Sleep PSY 151

Marketplace > Wake Forest University > PSY 151 > PSY Week 6 Part 3 Sleep

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes taken in the textbook chapter 6 on Sleep pages 274-290.
Introductory Psychology
Ashley L. Heffner
Class Notes
sleep, disorders, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Ashley L. Heffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


Reviews for PSY Week 6 Part 3 Sleep


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/05/16
PSY Ch. 6 Sleep Notes p. 274-290 How – and Why – Do We Sleep?  Microsleeps- barely perceptible and involuntary periods of sleep lasting between 3 and 15 seconds  Humans spend about 1/3 of their lives sleeping How Much Sleep Is Enough?  Total sleep deprivation- going entirely without sleep for 24 hours of more  Impairment of motor skills, decision making, hallucinations, and memory performance  Going without sleep for a period of days will not kill you  Large majority of Americans believe they are getting enough sleep – actually sleep deprived Sleep Patterns Are Regulated by Two Processes  Circadian pacemaker- governs each person’s internal “biological clock”  Sleep homeostat- tracks the amount of sleep you have relative to the number of hours you have been awake The Circadian Pacemaker  Circadian rhythm- any biochemical, physiological, or behavioral cycle that adheres to a near 24-hour schedule  Circadian pacemaker- the “master control” for a person’s various circadian cycles, consisting of a group of neurons forming the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus  Suprachiasmatic nuclei- (SCN) a group of neurons of the hypothalamus that constitute the circadian pacemaker  Natural light is conducted from the retina via the optic nerve to the circadian pacemaker, conveying information about the time of day  Light affects the production of hormones  Melatonin- hormone of the pineal gland, stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light, which is associated with the onset of sleep o Produced during the periods of darkness The Sleep Homeostat  Sleep homeostat- coordinated biochemical neural, and psychological functions that “keep track” of the amount of sleep a person has had relative to the number of hours of waking  Sleep homeostasis- a balance between sleep and waking, governed by the sleep homeostat  Sleep debt- when the sleep homeostat creates the urge to make up for lost sleep by sleeping longer or more frequently than usual Falling Asleep Is a Gradual Process  Hypnogogia- a dream-like state at sleep onset during which a person may or may not be aware that he or she is experiencing hallucinations or delusions  Myoclonia- jerking of limbs before sleep  Sleep paralysis- sensation of being unable to move during periods of intense and often terrifying hallucination Sleep Comes in Two Types and Five Stages  REM sleep- the fifth stage of sleep characterized by high levels of brain and nervous system activity and intensely vivid, hallucinatory dreaming (20%)  NREM- sleep stages 2-4 characterized by cognitive activity, ordinary dreaming, and reduced brain and nervous system activity relative to REM (80%)  Occurs over a greater portion of sleep time  Sleep stages- 5 stages of sleep including a period of sleep onset, three periods of NREM, and one of REM sleep  Each stage is associated with characteristic brain wave activity, and the stages are played out during the night in repeating pattern (the sleep cycle)  Brain wave- characteristic electrical brain activity of various frequencies termed alpha, beta, theta, and delta  Beta waves- the brain waves that predominate in waking states and are present in REM  Alpha waves- predominate in relaxed, wakeful states while eyes are closed, and in sleep onset  Theta waves- predominate at stage 2 and stage 3 sleep  Delta waves- slow brain waves that predominate at stage 4 sleep 1. Stage 1 sleep- transition from relaxed wakefulness to onset of sleep 2. Stage 2 sleep- light sleep from which you can be easily awakened, but you will be unaware of environment as you sleep  Sleep spindles  K complexes 3. Stage 3 sleep- first stage of deep or “slow wave” sleep from which it is difficult to awaken  May experience disorientation on awakening 4. Stage 5 sleep- REM  Most intense and vivid periods of dreaming occur  During REM sleep the nervous system revs up o Muscle tone suddenly decreases dramatically o Sleeper is effectively paralyzed and cannot move  Sleep cycle- repeating patterns of stages 2-5 sleep that recurs four to six times throughout the night following sleep onset o One cycle lasts between 90 and 110 minutes The Function of Sleep Is Unknown  We do not know WHY we sleep  Rest and rejuvenate theory  Sleep must be doing something beyond offering a person rest  Possibly allowing the brain to consolidate and retain memories  Possibly regulates the strength of brain synapses Do We Sleep to Remember?  Memory processed seem to become profoundly impaired during sleep deprivation  Sleep substantially improves memory for facts and skills one has learned  Memories “replayed” during sleep  Improves memories for emotional events Do We Sleep to Forget?  In the absence of sleep, synapses would continue to become stronger, more numerous, and eventually take up too much brain space and require too much energy to maintain  Sleep appears to prune back the strength of the synapses and their number, allowing the strongest ones to “scale back” to manageable size and the weaker ones to disappear all together What Are Dreams?  Little agreement regarding the important questions of dreaming Sleep Mentation Includes Thinking and Two Levels of Dreaming  REM does not necessarily produce dreaming  Sleep mentation- any and all mental activity occurring during sleep, including “sleep thinking” and various levels of dreaming o Cognitive activity o Ordinary dreaming o Apex dreaming Cognitive Activity (“Sleep Thinking”)  Sleep thinking- (cognitive activity) rational, directed thought occurring curing NREM sleep Ordinary Dreaming  Average dream contains recognizable characters with realistic activities  Ordinary dreaming- dreams depicting relatively realistic activities and recognizable characters o Majority of dreams that occur during NREM sleep Apex Dreaming  Apex dreams- the most intense, bizarre, nonrational, and hallucinatory dreaming  Characterized by the dreamer’s acceptance of wildly improbable events as being real  Lucid dream- a type of apex dream where the dreamer becomes aware that he or she is dreaming Dreams Have Meaning to the Dreamer  Dreams are the cerebral cortex’s attempt to make sense out of random electrical brain activity while it is operating without the help of neurotransmitters that characterize waking cognition  Dreams are the brain’s attempt to solve problems during sleep or regulate mood carried over from the previous day  Dream evolved to allow the dreamer to “rehearse” various sorts of responses to threatening situations  Consist of content drawn from the person’s life history, circumstances, emotions, and subjective experience What Do People Dream About? th 1. Despite major cultural changes over the second half of the 20 century the dream life of young adults has remained essentially unchanged 2. There are stable cross-cultural similarities and differences in certain aspects of dream content 3. There is a strong continuity found between the content of people’s dreams and their waking thoughts 4. Sleeping environment can also effect the content of dreams What Are Sleeping Disorders? Sleep Problems and Sleep Disorders Are Not the Same  Only 24% of the 75% of adult Americans defined by the NSF as having at least one symptom of a sleep problem agree that they do have a sleep problem  Only 34% of Americans are at risk for any of the major sleep disorders Insomnia Has a Life of Its Own  Insomnia- a chronic difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and/or being unable to obtain restful sleep  Not the same as circadian rhythm disorder  Exhaustion, irritability, isolation, and hopelessness about the situation ever improving pervade the sufferer’s entire day  May have long lasting consequences Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Can Be Life-Threatening  Obstructive sleep apnea- a sleep disorder caused by narrowing at various sites along the upper airway leading to repeated nightly episodes of inability to breath  Most common of the sleep disorders Parasomnias Can Be Nightmarish  Parasomnias- a group of sleep disorders characterized by unusual or bizarre physical behaviors, perceptions, dreams, or emotions during sleep  Walk, talk, scream, eat, fight, urinate, grind their teeth, or have sex in their sleep REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder  REM-sleep behavior disorder- a parasomnia where the sleeper is missing the muscle paralysis component of REM sleep and “acts out” confrontational and violent dreams Night Terrors  Night terrors- parasomnia consisting of episodes during which the sleeper may suddenly sit up in bed screaming in fear, flail, or run as though pursued by a terrifying attacker o Night terrors are not caused by nightmares  In the morning he or she likely will not remember the event  Tend to occur during NREM sleep where dreaming is least likely to occur Sleep Walking  Sleepwalking- (somnambulism) a parasomnia characterized by wandering often aimlessly, during late REM sleep  Generally more benign Narcolepsy Destroys the Boundaries between Sleep and Wakefulness  Narcolepsy- chronic disruption of the sleep homeostat and sleep cycle o Those suffering may feel the irresistible urge to sleep at any time, generally falling directly into REM sleep  May begin to dream vividly the moment they fall asleep  Associated with a dysfunction in the ability of the brain to produce hypocretin, a hormone that helps to govern the sleep cycle


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.