Week 5 Notes
Popular in Biopsychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Wagner on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 41363 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Physiological Psychology 41363 Outline 5 Striate cortex: Modular. 2500 squares. Each square is responsible for a different part of what is seen in a particular field of vision. Coded for within the striate cortex, the cytochrome blobs help with field of vision. Dorsal: goes to top, where object is in space Ventral: what object is called, goes to bottom Blind sight: due to secondary visual pathway due to superior colliculus. I. Review of vision and the eye VII. Seeing color hues largely depends on the wavelength of light reflected off an object. Three types of photoreceptors. Red, blue, green. Blue has smallest number of cones (8%). 1. additive mixture each light adds its wavelength to the color mixture 2. subtractive mixture when you mix these colors they absorb more wavelengths or subtract that light from our vision Oncenter: if hit the center of the cell, then increased rate of firing, hits other parts, slows firing A. 2 main theories 1. trichromatic theory (YoungHelmholtz theory) Three types of receptors, each with a different spectral sensitivity. Works are photo receptor level. Can account for all different colors if you have red, green and blue cones. 2. opponentprocess theory Two different classes of cells encoding color and another class encoding brightness. Each encodes two opposite color perceptions. Red and green and yellow and blue. If you stare at one of these colors then a piece of paper, you see the opposite. Accounts for color afterimages and colors that cannot appear together (reddish green or bluish yellow). Work by the ganglion cell layer. Both theories right: coding of colors by cones seems to operate at the basic receptor level. From then on, opponentprocess theory is correct. Protanopia: first color deficit. Confusion with red and green cones. Red cones filled with green opsin. Sexlinked, more common in males. Deuteranopia: green cones are filled with red one opsin. Sexlinked. Common in males. Only have 1 X chromosome, so mother passes on gene. Tritanopia: an inherited form of defective color vision. Blue cones are either lacking or faulty. Can’t see blue, still can see clearly. The Other Senses II. Audition A. What do we hear? Hear dimensions of sounds. Humans hear sounds within the range of 20 20,000 Hz (hertz = vibrations per second) B. cocktailparty phenomenon—there can be music, a conversation everywhere, a doorbell, a baby, and a dog and still hear your name being said and tune into what is being said. Audition: analytic sense. Can hear many different things and still understand and tune into them. Vision: synthetic. Adding everything together to create a whole. C. Three dimensions of sound 1. Loudness a function of intensity: Unit of measurement for loudness is decibels 2. Pitch determined by the frequency of vibration, measured in hertz (Hz) 3. Timbre nature of the sound/complexity. Very complex would be in an orchestra or other music. D. Anatomy of the ear 1. Pinna—outside of ear. Like a funnel to bring in more sound. 2. Auditory canal to the eardrum (tympanic membrane) which vibrates with the sound waves. Move with frequency, high frequency, faster movement of eardrum. 3. Ossicles (3 small bones of the middle ear) amplify sound waves as we go into a more liquid present location a. malleus (hammer) b. incus (anvil) c. stapes (stirrup) 4. the stapes rests on the oval window which is a membrane that is the beginning of the cochlea. Move from movement of vibrations to action potentials. Need 2 windows because cochlea is fluid filled. 5. cochlea snailshaped: contains the receptive organ organ of Corti: divided longitudinally into 3 fluidfilled canals a. hair cells receptor cells reside in basilar membrane, moves up and down. Highest frequency occurs at the top. Hair cells have axons that come together to form auditory nerve b. basilar membrane—very flexible, moves up and down depending on location of the frequency of the sound. As fluid moves past, cells bend and hairs move. Inner hair cells coding the cells. Outer hair cells in charge of keeping everything where it should be, more structural. c. tectorial membrane—very rigid d. round window Crossover occurs in the medulla in the superior olivary complex (part of the medulla) because contralateral. Inferior colliculus part of auditory pathway, then medial geniculate nucleus. Sent to auditory complex. E. From the ear to the brain very complex, the cochlea message is sent through the auditory nerve and hits the medulla and thalamus before going to the contralateral primary auditory cortex F. How do we hear? 1. Place coding evidence indicates that we hear moderate to high frequencies by place coding. Different frequency sounds stimulate different places on the cochlea. Bending hair cells in very specific spot, fire action potential accordingly. Different types of hair cells; inner hair cells help with actual hearing process. Lose higher frequency hearing first because hairs closest to basilar membrane become brittle. Cochlear implant has a wire that moves along the cochlear based on the frequency of cell. 2. Rate (Frequency) theory works best for low freq sounds. Tiny part vibrates. Tip link opens trap door when hairs bend; cations can go in. depolarizing the cells. G. How do we locate sounds? 1. arrival time and phase diffs—low frequency sounds. Hits one tympanic membrane before the other. Wave is coming in and hits one ear before other 2. phase diffs—low frequency sounds. Louder in one ear, before gets to next ear 3. intensity diff—high frequency sounds. IV. Taste Chemical senses: gustation (taste), smell. Hard to quantify taste and hard to do research Four basic qualities or types of taste sweet, sour, salty and bitter Recently added 5 taste: umami (meaty taste) Flavor, as opposed to taste, is a composite of olfaction and gustation. large differences in taste sensitivity as we age A. Anatomy of tongue 1. taste buds—ten thousand taste buds. Molecules must be dissolved by saliva in order to taste. Chemical particles fall into receptors. To taste salty, a substance must ionize. Sourness receptors respond to hydrogen ions. Bitter and sweet substances are difficult to characterize. 2. papillae visible protruberances on the tongue 3. hairlike processes in the space between papillae are stimulated and electrochemical signal occurs B. From tongue to brain 3 diff nerves carry taste info to brain goes through medulla and then to thalamus where it is routed to primary somatosensory cortex. Ipsilateral, not crossing over. Also goes to the hypothalamus and amygdala. V. Smell the other chemical sense humans have 10 mil smell receptors, different types smell is also very evocative—different smells trigger memories can be synthetic and analytic A. Anatomy of the nose 1. chemical molecules released from a substance are brought in through the nose and nasal cavity 2. olfactory epithelium where the olfactory receptors are contained 3. odorous molecules dissolve in mucous and stimulate receptor molecules, then stimulate G proteins 4. olfactory bulbs Go to limbic cortex and amygdala regions. B. How do we smell? 1. lockandkey theory different shaped receptors receptive to diff molecules, doesn’t work this way, we can smell a wider range of olfactions 2. Vibration theory molecules of distinct odor generate a specific vibration frequency in the nose. Different pattern of smells. Similarities between smells, go into subsection into similar smells. Vomeronasal organ—perfume, deodorant, pheromones. Other organisms completely guided by presence of pheromones. Ex) golden hamster, rats. For animals, entire reproduction and sexual behaviors related to Vomeronasal organ. Less important for humans. None of these are pleasant smells, one of the most repulsive smells. Use pheromone detection to be most attracted to certain mates and who will improve immune function in offspring Transduction of olfaction—can smell thousands of smells, so not lock and key. Instead, pattern of smells fall under each odorant that will bind to multiple receptors VI. Vestibular system A. Vestibular sacs head's orientation Utricle and Saccule. Used in telling where gravity is. Keeping upright. Otoconia—calcium carbonate bends hair cells, can tell what is up and what is down. Balance, maintenance of head in upright position, make sure eyes are focused B. Semicircular canals angular acceleration Three of them. Respond to angular acceleration. Changes in angular acceleration. Ampulla and inside of ampulla is cupula. You resist movement, so as you move, fluid moves through canal. Ampulla resists movement then moves a bit delayed. If you spin then fluid keeps moving and gets too revved up and you become dizzy. Vestibular pathway—synapse upon the cerebellum (movement info and smooth it out), spinal cord, medulla, pons, neck muscles, vestibule ocular reflex (to keep eyes focused as you move). If damaged, eyes move as body moves too much and cannot see as well, not as much focus while moving. VII. The somatosenses the sense of touch Proprioception and kinesthesia provide info about body position and movement. Critical for development and receiving information. A. Anatomy of skin 1. 2 types of skin a. hairy—every part of body that is not glabrous. Merkel’s disks not present here, all others found in hairy b. glabrous: more complex mixture of receptors—lips, palms, fingertips, balls of feet. Receptors respond to texture and manipulation and indentations. Ex) if holding remote and asked to name object without moving, very difficult. 2. Receptors Respond primarily to changes in pressure, not consistency Manipulation is set by vibration (touching, feeling, movement) of object a. free nerve endings b. Ruffini corpuscles low freq vibration c. Pacinian corpuscles very sensitive to vibration—high concentration in glabrous d. Meissner's corpuscles & Merkel's respond to touch—more found in glabrous because of changes in pressure B. 3 distinct cutaneous (skin) senses 1. Touch pressure and vibration is caused by movement of the skin: when Pacinian corpuscle is bent, it depolarizes and fires 2. Temperature most agree that temp stimulates free nerve endings and that there are ones for heat and cold. Feelings of temp are not absolute, but relative. Relative to base environment. 3. Pain also associated with free nerve endings: evidence for chemical cause. Most psychologically mediated sense. Ex) soldiers shot 6 times, not even aware that they were shot until after. Some people pain sensitive, some pain resistant. Difficult to study pain because it is unethical to bring people into a lab and damage tissues. C. From skin to brain 2 (primary) pathways both coming into the dorsal side 1. Fast conducting: long myelinated axons that convey precisely localized info. touch or movement. Highly myelinated, dorsal columns: precise touch, not many synapses, nothing is diluted 2. Slow conducting: short unmyelinated axons that convey poorly localized info like pain and temp. Spinothalamic tract: dull, many synapses. D. pain perhaps one of the most psychologically mediated senses phantom limb pains. Have perceptions of pain. Central pain perception that the limb hurts even when amputated. Periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)—responsible for analgesia. Less perception of pain that needs to be involved in order to successfully reproduce or attempt of mating, so that we don’t say “ouch” and run away from need to mate.
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