Psychology 101 Notes, Week 1
Psychology 101 Notes, Week 1 PSY 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asha Ritchie on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by David Hambrick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
The Story of Psychology What is Psychology? Scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior – any action of an organism that we can observe and record, and many actions qualify. Mental Processes – internal, subjective experiences, including sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, and feelings. We infer unobservable mental states such as feelings from observable behaviors. In this sense, behavior is a “window” on the mind. Science – an approach to gaining understanding of the natural world through systematic observation. Study of psychological disorders “Abnormal Psychology” The “Door” Study among the first to demonstrate that change blindness can occur outside of the laboratory Important People Edward Titchener – introduced structuralism Willhelm Wundt – founding father of psychology William James – thought about the minds functions, he argued that the function of consciousness is that it enables us to consider our past and to adjust our present circumstances accordingly Wrote Principles of Psychology Francis Galton – thought about individual differences in psychological traits, and invented tools and statistical techniques to study them Behavior or Mental Processes Biological Influences Natural selection of adaptive traits Genetic predispositions responding to environment Brain mechanisms Hormonal influences Psychological Influences Learned fears and other expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Social-Cultural Influences Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Peer and other group influences Compelling models (such as the media) Contemporary Psychology Psychology's Subfields Biological Psychologists Study the link between the brain and behavior What each region of the brain controls Developmental Psychologists Study how our behavior and thinking changes, from womb to tomb Why do certain types of memory decline with age Cognitive Psychologists Study how people perceive the world, and how they form new memories, think, and solve problems Social Psychologists Study how we interact How we view and affect one another in social interactions Types of Research in Psychology Basic Research The aim is to simply increase knowledge of some phenomenon - to build theories Applied Research Tackles practical problems Like how to select individuals who are likely to succeed in a particular job A few of Psychology's Areas of Practice Counseling Psychologists Help people cope with challenges of all sorts Academic, vocational, marital, etc. Clinical Psychologists Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders Human Factors Psychologists Use principles of perception and cognition to design devices an interfaces that people interact with Like dashboards in cars, aviation industry (airplane cockpits, flight crew communication) Industrial Psychologists Study the relationship between people and their working environments to increase productivity, improve personnel selection, and promote job satisfaction Chapter Review What is psychology, and what types of research do psychologists conduct? Study of behavior and mental processes Basic and Applied When and how did psychological science begin? Wilhelm Wundt - 1878 What are psychology's levels of analysis and perspectives? What are psychology's main subfield and areas of practice? Counseling, Clinical, Human Factors, Industrial
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