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Biopsychology Week 5 Notes

by: Jennifer Wagner

Biopsychology Week 5 Notes 41363

Marketplace > Kent State University > Psychology > 41363 > Biopsychology Week 5 Notes
Jennifer Wagner

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About this Document

These notes will be on the second exam. Covers vision, but seeing color and review will be on the audition, olfaction, and touch notes.
Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty
Class Notes
Vision, The, eye
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Wagner on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 41363 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Douglas L. Delahanty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychology at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Physiological Psychology 41363  Outline 4  I. Vision and Perception a. Sensory transduction: the process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into  receptor potential. How we get sensations into action potentials.  b. Sensory receptor: a specialized neuron that detects a particular stimuli       II. Anatomy of the eye—help with eye movements: vergence: eyes move together; saccadic:  eye movements that your eyes normally make from point of focus to point of focus as fast as  possible. Evolutionary relevant, very jerky; Pursuit: can slowly follow movement A. Sclera—white part, skin, outer casing of the eyeball. Sensitive. Contains vitreous humor  (liquid inside) B. Cornea—transparent shield. First point of focus, barely dials in, NOT focused in great detail.  Bends and refracts light.   C. Pupil—hole into the eye, surrounded by muscle (iris)  D. Iris—muscle. Controls amount of light that can come into the eye. As you get older, gets  worn out, difficult to adjust to light. Relaxes and lets more light in when the light is dimmer.  E. Lens—fine tuning and fine focus. Cataracts is the clouding of the lens. F. Retina—back of the eye. Transduction occurs here. How you go from a ray of light to the  action potentials. If focusing too soon, near sighted, focused too late, far sighted.  1. First layer ­ ganglion cells. Transparent, light passes. Neurons whose axons come together to  make the optic nerve. Going further into the brain. (Back of the eye). Axons of the ganglion cells make up the optic nerve and go further back into the brain.  2. Second layer ­ 3 types of interneuron cells  a. amacrine—passing info perpendicularly. Good at perceiving edges with horizontal cells.   b. horizontal cells—integrate all of the info in photoreceptors with amacrine cells.  c. bipolar cells—connects and passes info along the path 3. Third layer ­ photoreceptors ­ duplexity theory. Doesn’t do anything until it hits this layer.  a. rods ­ responsible for vision in dim light: more  sensitive: however, lack detail and color. First discovered when studying nocturnal animals who  do not need to worry about seeing color. Sensitive to low intensity light. 120 million rods. High  convergence: hundreds of cells down to one. b. cones ­ vision in bright light ­ fine­detailed color. Maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision. 6 million cones. Low convergence, close to 1 to 1 ratio between cone and ganglion, so precision and clearer images.  G. Fovea ­ high acuity vision. Indentation; area of highest visual acuity. Made up entirely of  cones. Takes up 25% of the space used in the brain allocated for vision. No diluting of the lights,  cells pulled out to the side so light directly hits the fovea. H. Optic nerve ­ blind spot; optic disk. Axons leaving and going into the brain. When light  focuses on it, there are not photoreceptors so we cannot see anything. I. Optic chiasma—crossover of axons carrying information. Vision is a contralateral sense based on field of vision (not by each eye). Inside or medial eye’s field of vision is contralateral and the  outside is ipsilateral.  J. Lateral geniculate nucleus and then primary visual cortex—first synapse is on the lateral  geniculate nucleus in the thalamus. First time light synapses. Very simple pathway. Retina,  geniculate, striate (pathway). Geniculate nucleus has 6 layers of cells; inner two layers oldest  evolutionary layers. Magnocellular layer: perception of form, movement, depth, and small  differences in brightness. Need to know most basic human needs for survival. Outer 4 layers  developed later, focus on fine detail, and color.  V. How does light get transformed into neural signals?  A. occurs in the photoreceptors: vision largely inhibitory process. Lamella: layer consists of  photo pigments made up of other constituents. Contains Rhodopsin: opsin found in rods. Made  up of opsin and retinal. Light hits them and they bleach, retinal and opsin are separated. Sodium  is coming in and needs energy. In dark, spending energy to keep receptors open. Sodium  channels close when opsin and retinal split which closes the channel. Cell no longer  depolarizing; it hyperpolarizes (gets less and less positive) so stops releasing glutamate. Bipolar  and photoreceptor cells do not fire action potentials but release NTs on the ganglion cells which  depolarizes the ganglion cells which are able to fire action potentials. Opsin and retinal join  together to form a photo pigment. Constantly releasing glutamate (excitatory), inhibiting bipolar  cell because vision is different, inhibitory process even though glutamate is typically excitatory.  B. rods contain rhodopsin ­ made up of opsin and retinal  C. cones contain iodopsin (3 types) and photopsin  VI. Seeing edges  A. Mach bands ­ lateral inhibition. Show perceptually, see at more distinct level than what  actually exists.  B. Ganglion cells, lateral geniculate cells, and the lower layer of visual cortex cells  are on­center and off­center cells ­ most responsive to circular or curved edges.  C. Rest of visual cortex responds to straight edges­visual fields of the striate complex 1. simple cells ­ respond best to bars—lines in certain orientation. Cants move or inhibit it. ­  must be in particular orientation and position  2. complex cells ­ particular orientation but not position. Can move around but not pivot.  3. Spatial­frequency theory ­ cells respond even more to sine­ wave gratings then  to straight edges. Combine different gratings and come up to something closer to what we  actually see.   Modular organization of the striate cortex—the striate cortex divided into 2500 boxes. Layers of  info.  Seeing color: cyto­ blob—how we see color.  Two Streams of Visual Analysis—analyzed in the visual associate cortex after leaving the striate  cortex. Dorsal stream: where object is located in space and movement.  Ventral Stream: Goes  through inferior temporal cortex, we store what the object is. 


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