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Psychology Chapter 1 Notes

by: Kaitlyn Kwon

Psychology Chapter 1 Notes PSYCH 002

Kaitlyn Kwon
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Notes covering all of Chapter 1 in the Psychology (2014), OpenStax College, by Dr. Rose M. Spielman textbook
Dr. Wu
Class Notes
Psychology, psychologists, PsychologyTerms




Popular in Psychology

Popular in Psychology

This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Kwon on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 002 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Psychology Chapter 1 notes 09/26/2016 ▯ 1.1 What is Psychology?: ▯ Psyche- mortal woman whose beauty rivaled Aphrodite  Eros falls in love with Psyche and showers her with affection and gifts in return that she doesn’t see his face. ▯ Psychology refers to the scientific study of the mind  Psychology was coined at a time when the concepts of soul and mind weren’t as distinguished.  Scientific theory- broad explanation or group of explanations for some aspect of the natural world that is consistently supported by evidence over time  Empirical method- a method of acquiring knowledge based on observation including experimentation rather than only forms of logical argument or previous authorities ▯ ▯ Merits of an Education in Psychology: ▯ ▯ Usually people take psychology to help others, find out more about themselves and why they act the way they do.  One of the most popular majors on college campuses across the U.S.  6% of all bachelor degrees are in the discipline of Psychology ▯ ▯ Critical thinking – the active application of a set of skills to information for the understanding and evaluation of that information  Assessing its reliability and usefulness o An important skill in a world of competing “facts”, many of which are designed to be misleading  Involves maintaining an attitude of skepticism, recognizing internal biases, making use of logical thinking, asking appropriate questions, and making observations  Develop better observational skills ▯ ▯ 1.2 History of Psychology: ▯ Wilhelm Wundt and William James- Founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline from philosophy ▯ ▯ Wundt and Structuralism: ▯ Wilhelm Wundt: (1832-1920), German scientist  First person to be referred to as a psychologist  Viewed psych as a scientific study of conscious experience  Believed the goal was to identify components of consciousness and how it combined to result in our conscious experience  Introspection- (“internal perception”) a process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible; making the human mind like any other aspect of nature that a scientist observed o Used specific experimental conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable (repeatable) experience of the mind st o 1 stringent: use of “trained” or practiced observers, who could immediately observe and report a reaction o 2 : use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the subject and allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to the inner reaction o These were all put to eliminate “interpretation” in the reporting of internal experiences and counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual is observing their mind or consciousness accurately o *This is all known as Structuralism  It fell out of favor with the passing of Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener (1927) Wundt created the first laboratory for psychological research ▯ ▯ James and Functionalism: ▯ William James: (1842-1910) first American psychologist who espoused a different perspective on how psychology should operate Saw psychology’s purpose to study the function of behavior in the world ^becomes known as Functionalism: focused on how mental activities helped and organism fit into its environment Believed that introspection could serve as one means by which someone might study mental activities James relied on more objective measures like recording devices, examination of concrete products of mental activities and of anatomy and physiology ▯ ▯ Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory: ▯ Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist, fascinated by patients suffering from “hysteria” and neurosis ▯ ▯ Hysteria- and ancient diagnosis for disorders, primarily of women with wide variety of symptoms  None of which had an apparent physical cause ▯ Freud theorized that the unconscious mind was a repository of feelings and urges of which we have no awareness  The unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis  Psychoanalytic theory: focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious as well as early childhood experiences  Methods include the patient talking about their experiences and selves ▯ Drew Westen: (1998) argues that many of criticisms of Freud’s ideas are  misplaced  attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings  critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or developed, such as: o importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations o role of unconscious vs conscious motivations in driving our behavior o the fact that motivations can cause conflicts that affect behavior o the effects of mental representations of ourselves and other in guiding our interactions o the development of personality overtime  Some current practices in psychotherapy involve examining unconscious aspects of the self and relationships, often through the relationship between the therapist and client ▯ ▯ Wertheimer, Koffka, Köhler, and Gestalt Psychology: ▯ Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) ▯ Kurt Koffka (1886-1941) ▯ Wolfgang Köhler (1997-1967)  (All German psychologists who immigrated to the U.S. to escape Nazi Germany)  Credited with introducing psychologists in the U.S. to various Gestalt principles o Gestalt- translates to “Whole”  Major emphasis on how a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole  Ex.) A song is made up of individual notes but the real nature of the song is perceived in the combinations of those notes as they form the melody, rhythm, and harmony o Important foundation in humanistic theory: considering the human individual as a whole rather than a sum of individually measured parts ▯ Other researchers had concerns that inner experience could be a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and chose to exclusively study behavior, the objectively observable outcome of mental processes Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and Behaviorism: Ivan Pavlov: (1849-1936) Russian physiologist who studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex: a reflex response to a stimulus and over time, conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the OG stimulus  Worked with the salivation in response to food o Salivation reflex- second stimulus; once it was “learned” the food stimulus could be omitted  Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists ▯ ▯ John B. Watson: (1878-1958) American psychologist, thought that study of consciousness was flawed saying that objective analysis of the mind was impossible  He preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control Behaviorism- focus on observing and controlling behavior o Major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism o A lot of what animals could do, humans could do too o Largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and experimentation ▯ ▯ B.F. Skinner: (1904-1990) American psychologist, behaviorist who concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences  Spoke of reinforcement and punishment as major factors in driving behavior  Skinner box- conditioning chamber, isolates the subject from the external environment and has a behavior indicator such as a lever or button  Skinner focuses on positive and negative reinforcement of learned behaviors ▯ ▯ Maslow, Rogers, and Humanism: ▯ During early 20 century, American psychology objected to pessimism and determinism and was more dominated by behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ▯ ▯ Some psychologists began to form their own ideas that emphasized personal control, intentionality, and a predisposition for “good” as important for our self concept and our behavior. ▯ ▯ Humanism- a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans ▯ ▯ Abraham Maslow: (1908-1970), American psychologist known for proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivation behavior  Asserted that so long as basic needs necessary for survival were met, higher-level needs would begin to motivate behavior  The higher-level needs relate to self-actualization, a process by which we achieve our full potential ▯ ▯ Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:  Self-actualization (top): Inner fulfillment  Esteem: Self-worth, accomplishment confidence  Social: Family, friendship, intimacy, belonging  Security: Safety, employment, assets  Physiological: Food, water, shelter, warmth ▯ ▯ Carl Rogers (1902-1987): American psychologist, emphasized the potential for good that exists within all people  Used a therapeutic technique- client-centered therapy: therapist interprets what conscious behavior reveals about the unconscious mind, client-centered therapy involving the patient taking a lead role in the therapy session  Believed that a therapist needed to display 3 features to maximize the effectiveness of that approach: unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy o Unconditional positive regard: therapist accepts their client for who they are, no matter what he or she might say  He believed that people were more capable of dealing with and working through their own issues ▯ ▯ Cognitive Revolution: ▯ ▯ Cognitive revolution refers to the 1950s when new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science began to emerge; it revived interest in the mind as a focus of scientific inquiry ▯ ▯ Noam Chomsky (1928--): American linguist who was very dissatisfied with the influence that behaviorism had on psychology  He believed psychology’s focus on behavior was short sighted and that the field had to re-incorporate mental functioning into its purview if it were to offer any meaningful contributions to understanding behavior Multicultural Psychology: Culture has important impacts on individuals and social psychology, yet effects of culture on psychology are under-studied One weakness in the field of cross-cultural psychology is that it looks for differences in psychological attributes across cultures, there remains a need to go beyond simple descriptive statistics Ex.) Study of characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for a binge eating disorder in Hispanic American, African American, and Caucasian American individuals found significant differences between groups  Conclusion: results from studying any one of the groups could not be extended to the other groups, and yet potential causes of the differences were not measured ▯ ▯ The American Psychological Association has several ethnically based organization for professional psychologists that facilitate interactions among members  Reason: psychologists belonging to specific ethnic groups or cultures usually are more interested in studying the psychology of their communities; so this is an opportunity to grow the research on the impact of culture on individuals and social psychology ▯ ▯ 1.3 Contemporary Psychology: ▯ ▯ American Psychological Association (APA): a professional organization representing psychologists in the U.S.  Largest organization of psychologists in the world-> It’s mission is to advance and disseminate psychological knowledge for the betterment of people  Founded by disagreements between members of the scientific and clinical branches of psych within the APA  A significant proportion of its members are international, though majority is located in the U.S. ▯ ▯ Biopsychology and Evolutionary Psychology: ▯ Biopsychology: explores how our biology influences our behavior; structure and function of the nervous system and how its related to behavior ▯ ▯ Central Nervous System includes the brain and spinal cord ▯ Peripheral Nervous System includes nerves ▯ ▯ Research domains on biological psychologists: sensory and motor systems, sleep, drug use and abuse, ingestive behavior, reproductive behavior, neurodevelopment, plasticity of the nervous system, and biological correlates of psychological disorders ▯ ▯ Evolutionary psychology seeks to study the ultimate biological causes of behavior to the extent that a behavior is impacted by genetics  Charles Darwin origins  To be subject to evolution by natural selection, a behavior must have a significant genetic cause  The approach taken by most evolutionary psychologist is to predict the outcome of a behavior in a particular situation based on evolutionary theory and then make observations, or conduct experiments to determine whether the results match the theory o These types of studies are not strong evidence that a behavior is adaptive, since they lack information that the behavior is in some part genetic and not entirely cultural o Behavioral traits need not be adaptive under current conditions, only under the conditions of the past when they evolved  Areas of human behavior for which evolution can make predictions: memory, mate choice, relationships between kin, friendship and cooperation, parenting, social organization, and status. ▯ ▯ Sensation and Perception: ▯ -Physiological aspects of sensory systems as well as in the psychological experience of sensory information work ▯ ▯ Sensation and perception research is quite interdisciplinary  As in: sights, sounds, touch sensations, smells, temperature of the air, maintaining balance ▯ ▯ Cognitive Psychology: ▯ Cognitive psychology- the area of psychology that focuses on studying cognitions, thoughts, and their relationship to our experiences and our actions  Broad in its scope  Involves collaborations among people from a diverse range of disciplinary backgrounds ▯ ▯ Developmental Psychology: ▯ Developmental Psychology: the scientific study of development across a lifespan  Developmental psychologists are interested in process related to physical maturation o Also focuses on changes in cognitive sills, moral reasoning, social behavior, and other psychological attributes  Early developmental psychologists focus on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood  Jean Piaget -> very young children do not demonstrate object permanence, understanding that physical thing continues to exist, even if they are hidden from us o Hiding a toy from a child-> to them it no longer exists ▯ ▯ Personality Psychology: ▯ Personality psychology- focuses on patterns of thoughts and behaviors that make each individual unique  Freud proposed that personality arose as conflicts between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind o Adult personality would result from the resolution of various conflicts that centered on the migration of erogenous zones (oral, anus, phallus, and genitals  Personality traits- how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a person will behave in any given situation  “Big Five” (Five Factor model): Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion ▯ ▯ Social Psychology: ▯ Social Psychology- how we interact with and relate to others  Social psychologists conduct research on a wide variety of topics that include differences in how we explain our own behavior VS how we explain the behaviors of others, prejudice, and attraction o Also have sought to determine how being among other people changes our own behavior and patterns of thinking ▯ ▯ Stanley Milgram- Social psychologist famous for conducting research on obedience  Conclusion: 2/3 of participants were willing to deliver what they believed to be lethal shocks to another simply because they were instructed to do so by an authority figure o No one was harmed, actors screamed as the “voltage” increased ▯ ▯ Industrial-Organizational Psychology: ▯ Industrial-Organizational Psychology- subfield of psych that applies psychological theories, principles, and research findings in industrial and organizational structure and workplace environment  Used to create good hiring decisions Health Psychology: Health psychology- focuses on how health is affected by the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors  (AKA biopsychosocial model)  Health psychologists are more interested in helping individuals achieve better health through public policy, education, intervention, and research o Conduct research on genetic makeup, patterns of behavior, relationships, psychological stress, and health Sport and Exercise Psychology: Sport and exercise psychology- study the psychological aspects of sport performance, including motivation and performance anxiety and the effects of sport on mental and emotional wellbeing Clinical Psychology: Clinical Psychology- focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior Counseling psychology- focuses on emotional, social, vocational, and health related outcomes in individuals who are considered psychologically healthy Forensic Psychology: Forensic Psychology- deals questions of psychology as they arise in the context of the justice system  Forensic psychologists/psychiatrists can assess a person’s competency to stand trial, assess the state of mind of a defendant, act as consultants on child custody cases, consult on sentencing and treatment recommendations and advise on issues such as eyewitness testimony and children’s testimony o They must have a good understanding of the law and provide information in the context of the legal system as well as psychology ▯ ▯ 1.4 Careers in Psychology: ▯ PhD refers to a doctor of philosophy degree  You need a dissertation- a long research paper or bundled published articles describing research that was conducted as a part of the candidate’s doctoral training  An individual could be anything from a biological psychologist to a clinical psychologist in an academic setting ▯ ▯ Other Careers in Academic Settings: ▯ Postdoctoral training programs are common positions that new PhD individuals seek out before going on to serve as faculty ▯ ▯ Career Options Outside of Academic Settings: ▯ PsyD- a doctor of psychology degree that is increasingly popular among individuals interested in pursuing careers in clinical psychology  PsyD programs usually place less emphasis on research-oriented skills and focus more on application of psychological principles in the clinical context ▯ Licensed clinical or counseling psychologists can work in a number of settings ranging from private clinical practice to hospital settings ▯ ▯ Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatrists do different things and receive different types of education:  Both can conduct therapy and counseling  Clinical psychologists have a PhD or a PsyD o Administer and interpret psychological tests  Psychiatrists have a doctor of medicine degree (MD) o Can prescribe medicine ▯ ▯ Earning a doctoral degree in psychology usually takes 5-6byears of graduate study ▯ ▯ Undergraduate coursework may be applicable to other careers such as psychiatric social work or psychiatric nursing where assessments and therapy may be part of the job ▯ ▯ Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is the exam that people must take to be admitted to medical school and it now includes a section on the psychological foundations of behavior ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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