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Psych 115, personality notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

Psych 115, personality notes Psych 115

Alexandra Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

Notes on the personality chapter
Honors General Psychology
Professor Mary Ellen Stegall
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 115 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Professor Mary Ellen Stegall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Honors General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 11 personality  Personality: and individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving  Personality theory- an attempt to explain how people are similar, different, or unique  Psychoanalytic perspective: unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood o Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential person and founder o Stresses importance of unconscious and sexual and aggressive instincts and the effects of childhood experiences o Used “free association” – patients would report uncensored thoughts, images, and feelings that came to mind  Was different than hypnosis because it could be used on everyone o Described three levels of awareness  Conscious-everything you're aware of at the moment  Preconscious- things you're unconsciously aware of but can easily be brought to your current thoughts  Unconscious- things you are not aware that you have including thoughts, feelings, and wishes o He used dream analysis to study unconscious thoughts o Inadvertent things blurted by people are referred to as Freudian slips o The structure of personality  Id: most primitive, and is immune to morals, logic, and values and danger o Ruled by pleasure principle  Ego develops from the id o Ego: represents rational, organized, and planning dimensions of personality/ operates on reality principle o Superego: responsible for morals (right and wrong) serves as your “conscience”  Libido: referred to as sexual energy  Eros: consists of biological urges like hunger, thirst, and physical comfort  Thanatos: destructive energy and aggression o Self-defense mechanisms  Anxiety- result of conflict between the instinctual demands of id and morality of the superego and external restrictions  If the superego’s demands overwhelm the ego an individual may suffer guilt, self-reproach, or even suicidal impulses  Self defense mechanisms include o Repression, displacement, and sublimation o Personality development – five stages  Oral stage: begins at birth and focuses on sucking, chewing, and biting  Within the next two years the anal stage begins which focuses on elimination  The phallic stage focuses on the genitals o Oedipus complex: a child develops sexual feelings for the parent of the opposite sex o The identification process begins where the child tries to identify this parent’s values, attitude, and mannerisms  Latency stage: association of same sex peers/ child sexual identity is formed  Genital stage: incest returns but the superego counteracts these urges/ and sexual urges are directed into more socially accepted activities  Fixation occurs when a child is faced with a developmental issue and is “stuck” in a particular phase  Neofreudians o Started by Carl Jung (known as freud’s crown prince)  Rejected ideas of sexual drive and aggression  Believed in collective unconscious which is shared by all people and reflects humanity’s collective evolutionary history  Archetypes: mental images of universal human instincts  He believed men had a feminine side and women had a masculine side  He was first to describe people as being either introverted or extroverted  He recognized people’s need for psychological growth and self- realization o Karen horney stresses the importance of social and cultural factors  Said that flexible people can balance different needs for when different behavior patterns are appropriate  Counteracted freud’s comment that women suffer from penis envy and that men have as womb envy o Alfred Adler emphasized the importance of conscious thoughts  The fundamental human motive “superiority”  Arises from feelings of being inferior to others  Motivates people to compensate for what they lack  Inferiority complex develops when a person can’t compensate for what they lack and therefore get a feeling of inadequacy  Inversely, the superiority complex arises when someone exaggerates one’s accomplishments and importance o Erik erikson- theory of development (8 stages)  Personality formed by social influences  Psychohistory: study of individuals using psychoanalysis and history  Humanistic perspective focuses on human potential and self awareness and free will o Carl Rogers developed actualizing tendency: innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism  Developed the self-concept or one’s set of perceptions about one’s self  Positive regard is the sense of being loved and valued by other people  Conditional positive regard: a child is only loved when they behave a certain way  Unconditional positive regard: child is loved no matter what they do even if they don't conform to the standards and expectations o Abraham Maslow: hierarchy of needs  Developed self- actualization ( strive for completeness)  Peak experiences – characteristics of the self actualized  Social cognitive perspective o Depends on environment and other factors that dictate what our behavior will be based on our perceptions o Albert bandura ideas included social cognitive theory  By observing other people’s actions, specifically the consequences to their actions, we respond by following the rules of standards set by what we learn from others  Called reciprocal determinism  Your self-efficacy is your perceived capabilities to react to a particular situation  Trait perspective o Trait is defined as a relatively stable predisposition to behave a certain way  Trait theory focuses on identifying our differences in personality in our behavior predispositions  Surface traits: can be easily observed by our behaviors  Source traits: thought to be more fundamental than surface traits (hidden) o William Sheldon’s somatotype theory  Endomorph (711) round and soft/ extroverts and love physical comfort  Mesomorph (171) muscular/ adventuresome and aggressive  Ectomorph(117) thin and frail/ introvert and love privacy and smart o Raymond cattell believed that there are 16 personality factors that represent essential source traits  Invented the 16PF test to test personality traits o Hans Eysenck thought of personality in three dimensions- introversion, extroversion, and neuroticism-emotional stability  Neuroticism is the ability for a person’s predisposition to become emotionally upset/ stability meaning stable  Personality tests o Projective tests: a vague image or scene is given and subjects are asked to describe  Rorschach inkblot test  TAT  Tree test o Self report inventory test: individual evaluates themselves based upon a series of questions  MMPI test  CPI test  16 PF test


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