PSY 321 Chapter 8 (2)
PSY 321 Chapter 8 (2) Psy 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
PSY 321: Social Psychology Chapter 8: Social Influence I. Obedience a. Stanley Milgram i. Results 1. At 150 volts 82% of people passed that point 2. 60% of people went all the way to 450 volts ii. Surely things have changed, right? 1. Burger (2009) a. He basically conducted Milgram’s experiment with some changes i. Changes 1. He did a much more extensive screening of the participants 2. He made sure that the participants knew that they could leave at any time 3. His stop point was 150 volts ii. Results 1. He found that 70% of people went past 150 volts 2. We’re just as obedient now as we were back then b. What affects obedience i. Aspects of the victim 1. The closer you are to the victim the less likely that obedience will occur 2. The further away you are from what you’re doing harm to the more likely you are to do it 3. Dehumanizing the victims makes it easier to obey and harm them ii. Aspects of the situation 1. A lack of personal responsibility increases obedience 2. Gradual escalation increases obedience 3. If other people are obeying you too are more likely to obey iii. Aspects of the authority figure 1. The closer you are to the authority figure the more likely you are to obey 2. If the authority figure is perceived to have a high status then obedience increases 3. Is an authoritative title enough? – Hofling et al. (1966) a. He had a group of nurses and called them while they were working i. He pretended to be a doctor and ordered them to give a patient a lethal dosage of a medicine 1. Reasons why the nurses should not have obeyed: a. It was against hospital policy for random people to call the hospital b. The nurses did not know the doctor c. The drug was not commonly found in the ward they worked at d. The medicine said not to give it to patients in high doses ii. Before he conducted the experiment he asked nurses if they would listen to the doctor on the phone 1. The majority said that they wouldn’t 2. 90% almost actually did it 4. Is clothing enough? – Bickman (1974) a. They went to a city block that had parking meters i. They went up to people and told them to pay for someone else’s parking 1. Some people were approached by a person in street clothes a. 42% obeyed 2. Some people were approached by a person dressed as a security guard a. 92% obeyed II. Norms a. Definition: A rule or expectation within a group concerning how its members should or should not act b. Norms are unwritten c. Descriptive/ Social v. Injunctive / Prescriptive Norms i. Descriptive/ Social 1. What people do ii. Injunctive/ Prescriptive 1. Tells you what you should do iii. Sometimes these two things match up and sometimes they do not d. Do norms affect our healthy eating behavior? (Robinson, Fleming, & Higgs (2013)) i. Participants reported their vegetable/ fruit intake 1. They were divided into high and low consumers ii. They had the participants evaluate a poster and a flyer (Does it look professional? Is it clean?) 1. Health message v. injunctive v. descriptive 2. The participants read one of those three messages a. The health message was just generic b. The descriptive message said that more students eat fruits and vegetables c. The injunctive message said that students think that their peers should eat more fruits and vegetables iii. Afterwards they gave the participants an assortment of healthy and unhealthy snacks iv. Results 1. For high consumers it did not matter what norm they are shown since they already ate a lot of fruits and vegetables 2. Low consumers were more likely to eat healthier if they read the descriptive norm message III. Mimicry a. (Imitation) Mindlessly copying the behavior of others i. It is not a deliberate action b. What types of things do we mimic? i. Mannerisms, postures, expressions ii. Eating behavior c. Why do we do this? i. Ideomotor action (James) 1. Just seeing something makes you think about it and thinking about it make it more likely to happen ii. Allows us to sync up with others in our social environment d. Social effects of imitation i. We like people who mimic us more ii. We are more prosocial to people who have mimicked us e. Mimicking exceptional behavior i. Werther Effect (David Phillips) 1. The contagiousness of suicide 2. When a suicide happens in a community or if it is publicized there is an increase in suicides 3. Phillips (1984) a. They looked at the number of suicides before it was reported and then the number of suicides in the months following the story i. The number jumps up exponentially after a suicide is first reported ii. There was also an increase of suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts 4. Mass/ school shootings (Towers et al., 2015)
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