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A Human Approach to Biology, Week 6 Notes

by: Jenna Notetaker

A Human Approach to Biology, Week 6 Notes EBIO 1030-002

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Biology > EBIO 1030-002 > A Human Approach to Biology Week 6 Notes
Jenna Notetaker

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cell division, meiosis and mitosis
Biology-Human Approach 1
Caitlin Kelly
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
E­Bio Week 6 Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea divide a sexually by a process called binary fusion Each daughter cell gets an exact copy of the parent’s DNA Prokaryotes  Mitosis­ in semantic cells (everything except for gametes) One parent cell divides into  two identical daughter cells, daughter cells have same genetic material as parent cells  Meiosis­ forms gametes (egg and sperm cells) One parent cell divides into four  genetically different cells, daughter cells have half as much material as parent cells Cell Cycle 4 phases  G1­ first growth phase; makes more organelles S­ DNA replication G2­ second growth phase; DNA error checking  M­ mitosis or meiosis Chromosome­ compactly wrapped up piece of DNA Prior to replication, each chromosome is compacted of two single DNA molecules (homologous  pairs)  After replication, each chromosome is composing of a pair of 2 identical DNA molecules called  sister chromatids that are attached to one another at the centromere  Chromatin­ long, loosely wrapped strand of double helix DNA are wrapped in spools of proteins  called histones  Each DNA­ histone pools are a nucleosome DNA in a human cell stretched out would be about 2 meters long and packed in less than 10  micrometers in diameter  DNA replication­ making copies of DNA in a cell Break bonds between the 2 nucleotides strands Add complimentary bases to open strands  Dehydration synthesis between new nucleotides to create new daughter strand DNA replication requires many enzymes  DNA helicase breaks hydrogen bonds between DNA strands  DNA polymerase­ joins free nucleotides into a new strand of DNA  Semiconservative replication­ each new DNA molecule consists of one new strand and one old  strand  One strand duplicates continuously, the other strand duplicates discontinuously (in segments) Each species has their own specific chromosome number  Humans have 46 chromosomes  Human body cells have two of each type of chromosomes Their chromosome number is diploid (2n) Haploid= n (half the total number of chromosomes) All except one pair of chromosomes are autosomes  Autosomes are non­sex chromosomes Pairs of sex chromosomes differ between males and females (human females have 2 X  chromosomes, human males have one X and one Y chromosome) Karyotype­ how many chromosomes are in an individual cell and can reveal certain major  abnormalities  E­Bio Week 6 When proofreading and repair mechanisms fail, and error becomes a mutation Mutation­ a permanent change in the DNA sequence  Ionizing radiation, UV light, and environmental pollutants can all cause DNA mutations  Clones­ exact copies of a molecule, cell, or individual (asexual reproduction or embryo splitting) Reproductive cloning­ techniques produce an exact copy of an individual  Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)­ nucleus of an adult is transferred to an enucleated egg  Egg cytoplasm reprograms differentiated DNA to act like undifferentiated DNA  The hybrid cell develops into an embryo that is genetically identical to the donor  individual  Therapeutic cloning­ uses SCNT to produce human cells or embryos for research purposes  Research may lead ultimately to treatments for people who suffer from fatal disease  After S­phase comes mitosis Mitosis­ a nuclear (nucleus of the cell) division mechanism that maintains the chromosome  number Asexual reproduction­ a single individual can reproduce by mitosis and cytoplasmic division  Microtubules­ push and pull chromosomes (fishing line) Spindle­ networks of microtubules that attach to chromosomes  Centromere­ middle of chromosome  Kinetochore­ protein protector on centromere where spindles attach  4 stages of mitosis  Prophase = P Metaphase = M Anaphase = A Telophase = T Prophase­ spindle begins to form  Nuclear envelope breaks down  Microtubules attach to chromosomes  Metaphase­ chromosomes line up midway between the spindle poles  Anaphase­ microtubules pull sister chromatids apart Telophase­ chromosomes reach the spindle poles Nuclear envelopes reforms  Two new nuclei are formed (each with the same number as the parent cell) Cytokinesis­ cytoplasmic division (cell splits itself) Animal cells­ cleavage furrow (contractile ring pinches the cytoplasm in two) Plant cells­ cell plate (forms midway between the spindle poles and portions the cytoplasm) Telomeres­ a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome  Chromosomes are shortened with each round of DNA replication Telomeres act as buffers at the ends of the chromosome ad when the telomeres are gone,  the cell dies  Rare occasions, controls over cell division are lost and a neoplasm is formed  Neoplasm­ a group of cells that lost control over how they grow and divide  Neoplasm forms a lump (tumor) Malignant neoplasms (cancers) disrupt body tissues, both physically and metabolically  Cancer cells grow and divide abnormally  E­Bio Week 6 Capillary blood supply to cells may increase abnormally  Cytoplasm and plasma membrane are altered Altered recognition proteins and weakened adhesion­ they can break loose and invade  other parts of the body (metastasis) Asexual reproduction­ fast and energetically efficient, less error prone  Recombination can lead to new adaptions for a changing environment (sexual reproduction) Meiosis produces gametes (egg and sperm) with a single set of chromosomes  Meiosis I­ each duplicated homologous chromosome is separated from its partner  Meiosis II­ sister chromatids are separated 


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