Chapter 4.2 and 4.3
Chapter 4.2 and 4.3 1305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ruby Vargas on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Roychowdhury in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/05/16
Prokaryotes Have ridged cell wall outside cell membrane Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan Peptidoglycan is composed of sugars and amino acids and develops a layer outside the plasma membrane .(some bacteria) Some bacteria have additional outer membrane(preamble) Other bacteria have slimy layer of polysaccharides (Capsule) outside the cell envelope, which serves as a protection for bacteria. Some bacteria (cyanobacteria) have internal membrane and contains molecules needed for photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are bluegreen bacteria that receive energy from photosynthesis. Flagella helps bacteria move around. Composed of the protein flagellin. Pili (hairlike )structures on some bacteria help protect that and adhere to other cells. Rod shaped Bacteria= Cytoskeleton made of protein actin Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells 10x larger than prokaryotes Obtains: Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes MembraneEnclosed Compartments (Organelles) Each organelle plays specific role in cell. Ribosomes(not membranebound organelles)= Site for protein synthesis Occurs in both,prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Subunit consists of ribosomal rRNA to smaller protein molecules. Eukaryotes, rRNA are free in the cytoplasm and attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, inside mitochondria and chloroplasts. Prokaryotes, rRNA floats freely in cytoplasm. Nucleus= Largest organelle Location of Cell's DNA and DNA replication DNA transcribes to RNA Contains nucleolus, where ribosomes from RNA and protein begins Nucleus surrounded by 2 membranes (double membrane) = nuclear envelope Outer membrane of nucleus is continuous w/endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear pores in envelope control movement of molecules across nuclear membrane. (between nucleus and cytoplasm) Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) Large molecules obtain this amino acid sequence to be able to pass the nuclear envelope. In the nucleus= chromatin is developed when DNA combines with protein Chromatin are long thin threads called chromosomes Each chromosome contains one long DNA associated with proteins Human= 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each nucleus Cell Division = Chromatin condenses and individual chromosome become visible in light microscope. Endoplasmic reticulum = network of interconnected membranes in the cytoplasm, with large surface area. There are 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum : Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Ribosomes attached to outer surface where protein synthesis begins New proteins in RER enter the RER lumen where they are chemically modified and tagged for specific delivery. Proteins transported in vesicles that pich off from ER Secreted proteins and most membrane proteins (glycoproteins) are important for recognition to passthrough Glycoproteins= proteins with carbohydrates groups that are attached to polypeptide chains Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) No ribosomes Chem. modifies small molecules (ex. drugs, pesticides) Site of glycogen degradation (animal cells) Site of lipid and steroids synthesis Stores calcium ions= cell responses Golgi Apparatus (GA) composed of flattened sacs (cisternae) Receives protein from RER Modifies proteins and adds carbohydrates to proteins Engaged in transfer of proteins Concentrates packages and sorts proteins Site of polysaccharide synthesis for plant cell walls GA has 3 regions 1. Cis Region : Receives vesicles that contain proteins from ER 2. Trans Region: Vesicles bud off GA and travel to cell membrane or lysosomes 3. Medial Region: Between Trans and Cis Primary Lysosomes : Organelles originate from GA (1um in diameter) Lysosomoes : Sites where food and foreign material are broken down by cells = phagocytes Digestive Enzymes : Site where Macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers. Macromolecules enter cell by phagocytosis Phagosomes fuse w/primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes Phagocytes break materials down Autophagy is programed to destruct cell components Partially digested molecules enter the mitochondria Mitochondria (double membrane)= convert chem.energy to fuel molecules using oxygen Process is called Cellular respiration Cells that require a lot of energy have more mitochondria Ex. Human liver= 1000+ of mitochondria Granum Stack of thylakoids Thylakoids membrane (mb) Contain chlorophyll and other pigment needed for photosynthesis Leucoplasts store macromolecules (starch) Peroxisomes Collect and break down toxic by products of metabolism (H2O2) Glyoxysomes (plants only) lipids converted to carbohydrates for growth Vacuoles (plants and fungi) storage and waste/toxic product for survival storage for plant cells water enters vacuoles by osmosis, creating turgor pressure
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