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Chapter 4.2 and 4.3

by: Ruby Vargas

Chapter 4.2 and 4.3 1305

Ruby Vargas
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About this Document

Covers Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell structures
General Biology
Class Notes
Biology, Prokaryotic Cells, eukaryotic




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ruby Vargas on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Roychowdhury in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
 Prokaryotes ­Have ridged cell wall outside cell membrane  ­Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan                Peptidoglycan is composed of sugars and amino acids and develops a layer outside the  plasma membrane .(some bacteria) ­Some bacteria have additional outer membrane(preamble) ­Other bacteria have slimy layer of polysaccharides (Capsule) outside the cell envelope, which  serves as a protection for bacteria. ­Some bacteria (cyanobacteria) have internal membrane and contains molecules needed for  photosynthesis.            ­Cyanobacteria are blue­green bacteria that receive energy from photosynthesis.  ­Flagella helps bacteria move around.           Composed of the protein flagellin. ­Pili (hairlike )structures on some bacteria help protect that and adhere to other cells. ­Rod shaped Bacteria= Cytoskeleton made of protein actin Section 4.3  Eukaryotic Cells ­ 10x larger than prokaryotes  ­Obtains: Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Membrane­Enclosed Compartments (Organelles) Each organelle plays specific role in cell. ­Ribosomes(not membrane­bound organelles)= Site for protein synthesis      Occurs in both,prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ­Subunit consists of ribosomal rRNA to smaller protein molecules. ­Eukaryotes, rRNA are free in the cytoplasm and attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, inside  mitochondria and chloroplasts.  ­Prokaryotes, rRNA floats freely in cytoplasm. ­Nucleus= Largest organelle       Location of Cell's DNA and DNA replication      DNA transcribes to RNA      Contains nucleolus, where ribosomes from RNA and protein begins ­Nucleus surrounded by 2 membranes (double membrane) = nuclear envelope ­Outer membrane of nucleus is continuous w/endoplasmic reticulum  ­Nuclear pores in envelope control movement of molecules across nuclear membrane.  (between nucleus and cytoplasm) ­Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) ­ Large molecules obtain this amino acid sequence to be able to pass the nuclear envelope.  ­In the nucleus= chromatin is developed when DNA combines with protein      Chromatin are long thin threads called chromosomes ­Each chromosome contains one long DNA associated with proteins ­ Human= 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each nucleus  ­Cell Division = Chromatin condenses and individual chromosome become visible in  light microscope.  Endoplasmic reticulum = network of interconnected membranes in the cytoplasm, with  large surface area.  There are 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum : ­Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)      Ribosomes attached to outer surface where protein synthesis begins      New proteins in RER enter the RER lumen where they are chemically modified and tagged  for specific delivery.      Proteins transported in vesicles that pich off from ER      Secreted proteins and most membrane proteins (glycoproteins) are important for recognition  to passthrough      Glycoproteins= proteins with carbohydrates groups that are attached to polypeptide chains ­Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)      No ribosomes      Chem. modifies small molecules (ex. drugs, pesticides)      Site of glycogen degradation (animal cells)      Site of lipid and steroids synthesis       Stores calcium ions= cell responses  Golgi Apparatus (GA) composed of flattened sacs (cisternae) ­Receives protein from RER ­Modifies proteins and adds carbohydrates to proteins  ­Engaged in transfer of proteins ­Concentrates packages and sorts proteins  ­Site of polysaccharide synthesis for plant cell walls  GA has 3 regions  1. Cis Region : Receives vesicles that contain proteins from ER 2. Trans Region: Vesicles bud off GA and travel to cell membrane or lysosomes 3. Medial Region: Between Trans and Cis   Primary Lysosomes : Organelles originate from GA (1um in diameter)  Lysosomoes : Sites where food and foreign material are broken down by cells =   phagocytes    Digestive Enzymes : Site where Macromolecules are hydrolyzed into  monomers. ­Macromolecules enter cell by phagocytosis  ­Phagosomes fuse w/primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes ­Phagocytes break materials down ­Autophagy is programed to destruct cell components  ­Partially digested molecules enter the mitochondria  ­Mitochondria (double membrane)= convert to fuel molecules using oxygen      Process is called Cellular respiration  Cells that require a lot of energy have more mitochondria       Ex. Human liver= 1000+ of mitochondria  Granum ­ Stack of thylakoids Thylakoids membrane (mb)­ Contain chlorophyll and other pigment needed for photosynthesis  Leucoplasts ­ store macromolecules (starch) Peroxisomes ­ Collect and break down toxic by products of metabolism (H2O2) Glyoxysomes ­ (plants only) lipids converted to carbohydrates for growth Vacuoles ­ (plants and fungi)       storage and waste/toxic product for survival      storage for plant cells ­ water enters vacuoles by osmosis, creating turgor pressure 


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