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Psychology Chapter 5 lecture notes continued

by: Kailey Mathews

Psychology Chapter 5 lecture notes continued Psyc 2301

Marketplace > West Texas A&M University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psyc 2301 > Psychology Chapter 5 lecture notes continued
Kailey Mathews
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of chapter 5
W staff
Class Notes
General Psycology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailey Mathews on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at West Texas A&M University taught by W staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at West Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Chapter 5 class notes 5.1  Sensation o The sense organs’ (sensory receptor cells) detection of external physical stimulus and the transmission of information about this stimulus to the brain o Receives physical stimulation o Convert to on/off signals  Perception o The processing, organization, and interpretation (#2 in triangle) of sensory signals in the brain; these processes result in an internal neural representation of the physical stimulus o interpret From Sensation to perception  Sensory Receptors o Sensory organs that detect physical stimulation from the external world and change that stimulation into information that can be processed by the brain o No dendrites in sensory neurons  Eyes have a sack of rhodopsin (bleach)  When light hits it bleaches out –night vision  Ears have microscopic hair (cilia)  Vibration to neural firings  Pressure has a fluid filed bulb with a tail in the middle (green onion)  Pressures the tail and neuron fires  Transduction o A process by which sensory receptors change physical stimuli into signals that are eventually sent to the brain  Wind turbines convert natural gas into energy  Computers Work on DC  Light switch AC circuit Threshold to detect sensory information  Absolute threshold o The level of stimulus intensity at which a person correctly detects a stimulus 50 percent of the time o Sound proof room example  Difference Threshold o The minimum difference in physical stimulation required to detect a difference between sensory inputs  Weber’s law  Just noticeable difference (JND)  Two signals (same or different)  Eyes tested  Two lights blinking  Signal Detection Theory o Detection of a faint stimulus requires a judgment – it is not an all- or-none process  Signal detection theory helps us understand how a person can be biased toward either responding or not responding, despite being given the same amount of sensory input  Trite example: submarine o Sleep deprivation could make you think it was a school of tuna instead of a threatening ice berg  The way you detect a signal after an event  You feel like everyone could be saying something about you after you were made fun of by one person  Sensory adaptation o A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation  Getting used to the construction work in the back ground Vision  Sensory receptors in our eyes detect light: o Light comes into the eye and falls on the retina (the screen) where the receptor cells are housed  Color receptor cells - in the central area – Cones o Humans have great color vision o Color is seen in waves/second: Hertz (measured in nanometers)  400-700: visible light  x-ray vision – could not see low dense objects (a bush) o Trichromatic Theory  There are three types of cone receptor cells in the retina that help you to see  S cones- are the most sensitive to the short wavelengths- blue  M cones- are most sensitive to medium wavelengths –green  L cones- are most sensitive to long wavelengths – red  Mixing light = green blue and red  Reflection is what you see  Mixing color = yellow red and blue  Absorption is what you see o Opponent-processing theory  If receiving yellow- turns off blue  American flag- negative after image  Gestalt psychology  Perception (#2)  Young lady or old lady o You only see one at a time o Proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, illusory contours  Rods- visually process and see with low light levels – night or dim light vision o Humans have poor detailed vision compared to other animals  You cannot see through neurons  Only place you can see live neurons functioning  Pigment is dead last in the layer of cells in the retina o Cannot see because trees block your vision  You do not see the obstruction (the blind spots you have are covered by your eye) o When it is falling on the blind spot of left eye it is not falling on the blind spot of the right eye  The eyes cover each other  Perpendicular, nominated cell in middle layer of retina: it is smart; acts like a traffic cop  Smart=grey  Fat=white o Stabilizes our view of things (straight edge) o Part of stage 2 occurred in the retina  Others are just cables: sending information  Association areas in brain help you figure out what you are seeing and perceiving  Bottom-up processing o The perception of objects is due to analysis of environmental stimulus input by sensory receptors  You start from scratch: you don’t know what your about to see in the lab  Top-down processing o The perception of objects is due to the complex analysis of prior experiences and expectations within the brain  You already have been in the lab so you already know what to expect and you jump to conclusions  You know that person is kidding a lot o Mistakes: Samford- 1937- small college 1. Without food for 24 hrs. (saw food related items) 2. Documented food for 24 hrs. -  What is going on with us colors what we experience  Hypersensitive to food  Binocular and Monocular o Depth perception from two or one eye o Binocular- better depth How Do We Hear?  Hearing is also called audition  Language  transduction = conversion micro cilia  20-20,000 hrtz. …/second  bass- so slow that you can actually feel it  amplitude change (vertical change) changes the loudness Temporal coding – perception of lower-pitched sounds Place coding- perception of higher-pitched sounds Localization- ear estimates the location of a sound based first on when the sound arrives and second on the amplitude, or intensity, of the sound wave How Can We Taste and Smell?  Gustation  Olfaction  Sensory Adaptation – moving circle – pulsating human face  Stroboscopic motion


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