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Psych 210 Week 2

by: Anjali Grutzius

Psych 210 Week 2 PSY 210

Anjali Grutzius
Western Washington University
GPA 3.2
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapters 1 and 3 in class, Measures in Cognition and Perception.
Cristina Sampiago
Class Notes
Psychology, cognition, Science, neurology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anjali Grutzius on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 210 at Western Washington University taught by Cristina Sampiago in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Cognition in Psychology at Western Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Psychology 210 9/27/2016 Chapter 1 Measures in Cognition a) Introspection: describing one’s mental state • Primary method in the late 19 century • Not interpretation of inner states Problems: -People may not be honest -People cannot describe many aspects of cognition -People might be wrong -Introspections are subjective, varies from person to person b) Behavioral measures: to infer cognition • Accuracy: correspondence of input/stimulus and output/response • Reaction time: time elapsed between input/stimulus and output/response. (usually in milliseconds) • To infer number and/or duration of processes c) Physiological Measures d) Brain Measures Brief History of CP The first cognitive psychologist: Donders’ (1868) RT experiment • Measured time of cognitive processes • How long it took to make a decision • 2 tasks: simple (push one button) and choice RT (push one of 2 buttons) • Result: longer in choice RT than simple RT Helmholtz’s (1871) unconscious inference: perceptions result from unconscious assumptions. Ebbinghaus (1885) • Memory for nonsense syllables (DAX, QCH) • Method of savings ( timed self-memorizing lists, twice) • Forgetting curve: quantifying memory. Plotted his data. Wundt (1879) • First laboratory of scientific psychology • Created introspection The decline of CP • The rise of behaviorism • Watson’s Psychology as the behaviorist views it” rejects introspection, produced variable results, results were hard to verify. • Eliminated consciousness as topic of study • Replaced by observable behavior The ‘little Albert’ experiment (Watson’s most famous experiment) -Pairing noise with a rat affected behavior -9 month old subject Skinner’s operant conditioning • Dominated psychology in the U.S. during 1940-1950s • Behavior as the subject of study The rebirth of CP/The decline of behaviorism -Skinner’s (1957) “Verbal Behavior”: children learn language by imitation and reinforcements Chomsky’s (1959) review of ‘Verbal Behavior’ • Language not determined by stimulus/response but by inborn biological program • A turning point, consideration to how the mind works Breland&Breland’s (1961) “The misbehavior of Organisms” • Failures to condition animals, animal instinct not overruled. • The ‘cognitive revolution’: information processing approach in the 1950s. • Focused on how the mind processes information • Comparing the computer to the mind, now viewed as processing information in a sequence of stages You may take Quiz 1 Chapter 3 Perception The conscious experience that results from stimulation of the senses. What happens during the process of perception? How do we perceive objects? • Perception is based on data and knowledge • We are always interpreting the world • Visual illusions show the gap between what is out there and how the mind interprets what is out there. • What we actually experience is an interpretation of information gathered from the senses. • Many factors (experience, emotion, and motivation) affect what we perceive, • We organize and interpret what our senses take in, converting environmental stimuli into information • What we see is not a passive photograph of reality but an active construction of reality. • Bottom up processing is based on incoming data. (sensory information) • Top down processing is based on knowledge, context, experience and/or expectations which guide your analysis of the sensory information. 9/29/2016 How do we perceive objects? 1. Analyzing objects into components • Models specify types of representation used to compare input with. • Process to make comparison Several Models: -Template -Feature -Structural Template Matching • Stimulus is compared to stored pattern, a template. • Process: compare stimulus to template, look for a match. • Do humans use it? -Need impossibly large number of templates even for one object. -How do we keep track of them? -We recognized different patterns as same. -Too much time to search through it all. Feature Analysis • Stimulus is composed of separate parts, called features. • Recognition of stimulus depends on recognition of its features • Do humans use it? -Neural feature detectors: neurons respond to specific features of stimuli -Visual search experiments: finding a target among distracters. But we can construct patterns when there are no features. Same set of features can have many interpretations Structural Approach (recognition by components) • Special type of feature analysis • 3-D simple geometric components, called geons, and their arrangement are used to build representations of complex objects. • Emphasis on relations among features • Do humans use it? -Biederman (1985): people are better at recognizing degrading objects when more of the relational information is intact. -but not all objects are well described by geons. -Cannot always distinguish between different objects that share same basic components • Still an active area of investigation Maybe multiple types operate in parallel depending on types of stimulus, levels of specifity at which we need to identify it. 2. Putting together a single percept • Perceptual organization: Gestalt theory: mind organizes elements in predictable manner, the Whole, or Gestalt, is not the sum of its parts Principles of Organization a) Closure: mental filling in the blanks to complete b) Similarity: similar elements grouped together as a form c) Proximity: grouping elements close in space d) Good continuation: lines are perceived as forming the smoothest path. e) Common fate: Elements moving in similar direction and speed are grouped together. f) Simplicity or good Figure: perceiving a structure as simple as possible. Gestalt: experience ins important but doesn’t not overcome perceptual principles. Approaches: Regularities in the environment. –Oblique effect –Light from above assumption –Bayesian inference Why do computers have a hard time perceiving objects? Captcha: telling humans and computers apart. • We use context and the environment. Size is determined in part by comparing with nearby objects. Identity is determined in part by comparing with nearby objects. • We make assumptions. Assumptions are not conscious and can be misleading. They work most of the time. • We use knowledge, we use top down processes. You make take Quiz 3


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