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HY 314 Week 7 notes

by: Victoria Miller

HY 314 Week 7 notes HY 314

Victoria Miller

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About this Document

These notes cover the annexation of Texas and Manifest Denstiny
Coming of the Civil War
Dr. Lawrence Kohl
Class Notes
history, civilwar, texas, The University of Alabama
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 314 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Lawrence Kohl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Coming of the Civil War in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Week 7 Notes 1836-1844  Texas cont. o Problems with Annexation  Mexico considers it a rebellious province, didn’t consider them independent  Uncertain boundaries  Texas says the border goes all the way to the Rio Grande  Mexico says the border is along the Nueces River  Annexation was considered a Southern plot  Opportunity to expand slavery and increase their power in the Senate o Attitudes toward expansion  People begin to form opinions  Sections  South was all for it  “West” or the Midwest less strongly but still for it  New England was mostly against/didn’t care  Parties  Democrats in favor of expansion  Whigs anti-expansion and antiwar when it comes  1843-1844 o Abel P. Upshur (Secretary of State under Tyler)  Really wants Texas for Southern reasons and doesn’t try to hide it  Ends up getting blown up, literally o Tyler appoints John C. Calhoun as Secretary of State  Tyler had a chance to make Texas a not so Southern issue here but failed and chose an even more pro-Southern guy to handle it o Clay’s “Raleigh Letter”  Henry Clay was more Whig than anyone else and everyone assumed he’d be the candidate in 1844  Martin Van Buren was assumed to be the Democratic nominee  Neither of them want Texas and they both meet and agree to keep the issue out of the next election  Clay writes a letter saying he’s against annexation o Van Buren’s letter to the Washington Globe  Says he’s against annexation  Hurts him and doesn’t get the nomination  Andrew Jackson comes out in favor of annexation o Calhoun’s Packenham letter  Need to annex Texas to protect slavery  If not, Britain would gain control of Texas, abolish slavery, Texas would become a haven for runaway slaves like Florida had been  Calhoun publishes this letter saying we need to protect slavery, making the stance of the federal government on Texas to be about protecting slavery o Clay’s Alabama letters  Tried to soften his stance on Texas to gain votes in the South but ended up costing him votes in the North o James K. Polk  “Young Hickory”  First dark horse candidate and took nomination from Van Buren  Pro-Texas, pro-expansion o James Birney  Founded the Liberty Party  Abolitionist from Alabama who disagreed with William Lloyd Garrison saying abolitionists SHOULD get involved in politics o Oregon Country  “54’40 or Fight!”  Originally claimed by Spain, Britain, Russia, and the US  Britain really wanted to hold on to their fur trading post at Astoria  Polk claimed the whole thing  Playing to the sections  North really didn’t care about/didn’t want Texas  There would never be slavery in Oregon Country so the North could get excited about expansion o Election of 1844  Super close and came down to New York  Liberty Party would’ve never voted for a Democrat so they took votes away from Clay  If they hadn’t existed, Clay would have won  By not being pragmatic, they go the worst possible outcome on the issue they cared about most, slavery  If Clay had been president…  No Texas annexation  No war with Mexico  No Kansas-Nebraska  But slavery might have lasted much longer  Texas annexation o When Polk gets elected, Tyler decides to just annex Texas with a join resolution from Congress o No territorial status  Texas will come in immediately as a state  When a territory, federal government could prohibit slavery at that stage; this definitely would have caused a fight o No more than 5 states could be made of Texas  People worried about the South increasing power in Congress o Texas retains public lands o Texas has to pay its own debts o Extending the Missouri Compromise line  Had to because Texas was beyond the lands of the Louisiana Purchase  Oregon Country? o Extended 49 parallel and gave Britain everything above o Polk never really cared about Oregon but had to fool Northerners into thinking he did so he could get Texas Manifest Destiny 1836-1848  Expansionist Impulse o 1840s moving West was all the rage o It was our “manifest destiny” to conquer the continent  Manifest destiny  It’s obvious and it’s going to happen  Stephen Douglas quote  Basically says we should get rid of our national boundaries and just take in the whole continent  Reasons for Expansion o Population growth  People needed more room to farm o Land hunger o Ports on the Pacific  1844 US signed treaty with China opening up trading and giving us favored nation status, but we didn’t have any ports on the Pacific for this  Whaling  Ships from New England were already all over the Pacific and it’d take years to get back to the East coast o Access to foreign markets o Foreign influence  Like with Texas, people were concerned about British taking over, interfering with trade and slavery o Contempt for indigenous peoples  White people didn’t have respect for them and thought they’d be better off if conquered  We’re doing them a favor  Americans’ mission in the world?  Spreading freedom, democracy, and everything good about America  Mexican relations o When Tyler annexed Texas, Mexico cut off diplomatic relations with the United States  Because Mexico had never recognized Texas as an independent nation because Santa Anna was coerced into signing the treaty o Polk wants more  California  Keeps trying to buy pieces of Mexico o Mexican government was really unstable  Always in debt  Power keeps changing hands  Santa Anna was president 11 different times


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