Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
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Date Created: 04/22/14
ANTH 270 Chapter Eight Vocabulary 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Strepsirhines Members of the primate suborder Strepsirhini which includes lemurs and lorises Haplorhines Members of the primate suborder Haplorhini which includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Derived Being or having a feature that is not present in the ancestral form Orthograde Referring to an upright body position This term relates to the position of the head and torso during sitting climbing etc and doesn39t necessarily mean that an animal in bipedal Superorder A taxonomic group ranking above an order and below a class or subclass Sister groups The relationship of new clades that result from the splitting of a single common lineage Last Common Ancestor LCA The final evolutionary link between two related groups Crown Group All of the taxa that come after a major speciation event Crown groups are easier to identify that stem groups because the members possess the clade39s shared derived traits Taxa A taxonomic group of any rank Stem Group All of the taxa in a clade before a major speciation event Stem groups are often difficult to recognize in the fossil record since they don39t often have the shared derived traits found in the crown group Semiorder The taxonomic category above suborder and below order Euprimates quotTrue primatesquot This term was coined by Elwyn Simons in 1972 Postcranial Referring to all or part of the skeleton not including the skull The term originates from the fact that in quadrupeds the body is posterior to the head the term literally means quotbehind the headquot Subfossil Bone not old enough to have become completely mineralized as a fossil Bilophodont Referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel row resembling ridges or quotlophsquot This trait is characteristic of Old World monkeys Paleoprimatologists Anthropologists specializing in the study of the nonhuman primate fossil record Biostratigraphicfaunal correlation A method of dating strata that relates the fossil content of an unknown stratum to a like one that has been securely chronometrically dated Catarrhine Member of Catarrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini It contains the Old World monkeys apes and humans Platyrrhines Members of Platyrrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini These include only the New World monkeys Parvorder A taxonomic group below infraorder 21 Island hopping Traveling from one island to the next 22 Y 5 Molar Molar that has five cusps with grooves running between them forming a Y shape This is characteristic of hominoids 23 Zygomatics cheekbones 24 Terrestrial Living and locomoting primarily on the ground 25 Lecture Five Introduction to Primates 1 Mammals a Mammals live lives that are expensive in terms of energy consumption and expenditure b Mammals can inhabit many different environments c Live exible lives Our Heritage as Mammals i Monotremes platypus Marsupials kangaroos Placentals humans Ptm Generally viviparous Suckle young mammary gland iv Warm blooded v Increased brain size 1 Greatly enlarged cerebrum neocortex a processing sensory information b learning exible behavior vi Increased Sociality and Parental Care 1 Especially development of mother infant bond 2 K vs R selection mammals more K selected 2 Why study primates a Closest living primates humans as primates b Reconstruct hominid behavior ecology etc c Evolutionary processes Diversity of primate adaptions e Urgency habitat loss leads to extinction 3 The Comparative Method a By comparing similarities and differences between species we can get information i when traits evolved did they evolve before or after common ancestor 0 Z why they evolved how do niches of species with traits differ from without Y how likely they were to evolve analogous traits 4 Primates a Generalized b Diverse c Arboreal d Social Types of Primates i Suborder Strep sirhini 1 Lemurs lorises Galagos nM Suborder Haplorhini 1 Tarsiers monkeys apes humans H Prosimians 1 lemurs lorises galagos tarsiers iv Anthropoids 1 Monkeys apes humans f Living primate distribution P I EIEIquotIN 5 Tropic of Cancer ArAMTC AE PACiFJ Cl OCEAN V 4 ocmm 0 E39391l 3m3939 k 5 3 a ggt PIA cm pl OCEAN Tropic af Capricorn 2 3U 5 1 New world munkey5 LE0 339 mi 21 Old worIidamonkegrs I quot quot I 15m span km Lem 39 395 i uzo w 9nw 2 anwwl auvw oi 3D 39E EEJ39E 39 WE 1230 1539U E Tropics Sub tropics Arboreal heritage 1 visual predation 2 terminal branch feeding g Primate trends i Grasping hands and big feet 1 opposable thumbs and big toes 2 nails 3 tactile pads G Reliance on vision 1 binocular stereoscopic 2 color Reduction of olfaction 1 decreased snout size 2 decreased whisker number iv Generalized dentition 1 generalized diet omnivorous V Increased encephalization 1 especially for memory thinking and learning vi Increased parental investment 1 reduced litter size one offspring 2 long gestation Primate life history trends i Single offspring Extended Ontogeny prolonged life history 1 Learning behavioral exibility Pro simians Strep sirhines i Found in Madagascar and Old World 1 Greatest diversity in Madagascar 8 Many nocturnal Greater reliance on smell New World Monkeys i Smallest Marmosets Tamarins c Middle Sized Capuchins Squirrel Monkeys P Biggest Atelines Spiders Howlers Old World Monkeys i Medium to big Baboons Macaques Colobus Guenons The Apes i Come in two groups 1 Lesser 2 Great Live in Africa and Asia No Tails iv Arms can rotate for swinging through trees V Larger vi Bigger brains vii Gibbons 1 Genus Hokdfei 2 13 species 3 Southeast Asia 4 Small body size viii Orangutan 7 Poiggo pggmzem 2 Indonesian Islands Sumatra and Borneo ix Gorilla 7 G077 agara 2 3 subspecies a Mountain b Western c Easter Lowland 3 Tropical Africa X Xi m Why are primates social i iv 4 Knuckle walking Common Chimpanzee 7 Pom Trog04fey 2 4 subspecies 3 Tropical Africa 4 Knuckle walking Pygmy Chimpanzee Bonobo 7 Pom 12902712569J 2 Congo River Basin Disadvantages 1 competition for food 2 visibility to predators 3 competition for mates 4 risk of social tension and violence Advantages 1 predator defense 2 access to food 3 mate access 4 assistance in care of young 5 defense of food Most mammals don t live in permanent social groups Group composition 1 2 Composition highly variable Related to biology and ecology a Body sizeBMR b Food availability and distribution predation esp terrestrial Primate social systems 1 In general primate social systems evolve based on food resources a Females group where food is b males group where females group Semi Solitary N oyau a ie Orangutans and nocturnal strepsirhines Single male polygyny one male multi female a Gorillas colobus monkeys howler monkeys Multi maleMulti female groups a baboons and macaques Fission Fusion a Type of multi malemulti female group b Chimpanzees spider monkeys 6 Monogamous pair bonded a Gibbons and tarsiers 7 Polyandry multi male one female a Marmosets and tamarins 8 Social Structure a Dominance rank system as norm b Dominance hierarchies i reduces actual violence males and or females c High rank i greater food access growth and survival mate access 9 Type of social interaction a grooming b play c displays d aggression e cooperation f reproductive strategies i reproduction requires survival mating rearing offspring P male vs female strategies maximizing reproductive success 1 Males emphasize mating a rarely contribute to the cost of gestation so may father more offspring 2 Females emphasize rearing of offspring a once fertilized females will not increase reproductive success by repeated mating iv Male Strategies 1 Single Male groups a become dominant male b recruit new group c infanticide 2 Multi Male groups a monitor estrus cycles b friendship consortships c peripheral mating V Female costs of reproduction 1 milk production and long term energy costs 2 limit food access 3 increased risk of predation vi Female strategies 1 age of first reproduction 2 age at weaning of offspring 3 interbirth interval 4 alloparenting 5 mate choice vii Sexual swellings 1 Many primate females advertise oestrus with bright perineal swellings viii Group composition and sexual dimorphism 1 male male competition for control of females ix Group composition and reproductive strategy 1 male male competition a timing of matings b frequency of matings c amount of sperm 2 female choice x Sexual dimorphism 1 humans are intermediate in length dimorphism 2 in terms of fat free mass males have 15 times the fat free mass of females
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