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Unit 2: Greece Notes (Cont.)

by: Angie Jacobs

Unit 2: Greece Notes (Cont.) History 101-04

Angie Jacobs
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These notes continue on the topic of Greece. These notes go hand-in-hand with the Unit 2 Word List. Enjoy! -Angie
Western Civilization
Angie Anderson
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Jacobs on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 101-04 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Angie Anderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Western Civilization—Unit 2: Greece Notes {Tuesday, September 27 , 2016}  Cleisthenes (cont.) o Some of Cleisthenes' lasting effects on Athens are:  A council of 500 is created which the members are chosen by LOT  No special requirements to serve  Any male citizen over 30 were eligible  He expands the assembly's power (at least 40,000 could serve on this assembly):  The assembly could declare war, give money, veto council decisions, could reimburse (or pay to serve) the poor if they really wanted to serve  The HPIC (head person in charge) of these assemblies were known as demagogues, which means "leader" in Ancient Greece o These demagogues were good at public speaking, they appealed to the people's emotions, they basically were good orators in order to gain power.  Long after the time of Cleisthenes, Athenians used ostracism for good and bad reasons. o They used this if the leaders were trying to become dictators  How it worked: majority vote of all free men led to the FINAL DECISION!! If the vote was not in your favor, you were exiled for 10 YEARS! ( Bye-Bye!)  The Persian Wars (490's B.C- 480's B.C) o At this time, the Persian Empire is VERY powerful. (I mean, you don't put empire behind your name unless you can back it up!) o Persian Empire took over Thrace in 512 B.C o Ionian Greeks revolt in 499 B.C  Athens help them (help from the Greek mainland)  Rebellion is put down, Ionian men killed, women & children are placed into slavery  Greeks then burn down Sardis, which was the Persian capital. (uh-oh, it's ON now!) o These wars last about 20 years o Darius I is King at the time  Sent men to meet the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon o The Greek historian for the Persian Wars: Herodotus o Warfare stops for a while after Darius I dies  His son, Xerxes, takes over  Starts the war up again around 480 B.C  Really focused on crushing the Greeks  Sends a massive force over land, crosses Hellespont (the soldiers latch their ships together to cross Hellespont more quickly)  North of Thebes, Sparta and Athens join up o Thermopylae is where Xerxes' army met a small group of Spartans blocking their "mountain path"  Greek traitor tells the Persian army where to come in behind the Spartans; every Spartan dies, all 300 men  Athenians abandon the city of Athens & Persians burn Athens  Themistocles o Athenian naval commander, in charge o Persian navy had a supply line o Battle of Salamis: Themistocles & his navy meet Persian navy  Persian navy decimated  Persian army now has to retreat b/c they could no longer exist w/o supplies  Athenian navy managed to win b/c of Trireme: easily maneuverable, 3 oar ship o Final land battle at 479 B.C. at Plataea  Greeks win  If Persians had won, all beginnings of democracy would have been lost o Persian empire declines after the Persian Wars/ reign of Xerxes  Alexander the Great comes in and defeats Darius III  After the Persian Wars, Athens (478 B.C.) will go on the offensive o Still want to free the Ionian Greeks o Continue to strive to weaken Persia in Aegean area/ region o Wanted Persia to pay for war  Sparta was not apart of the Delian League o A decade later, Ionian Greeks are freed, Persia's weakened, Athens received their compensation  Athens keeps the Delian League active, even though its purpose has been served  Moves the Treasury of the league from Delos to Athens  Refused to let city-states out of league o Sparta fears Athens is becoming too powerful  Builds up defensive measures: Peloponnesian League  Athenian leader at the tie is Pericles  This period is known as "Classical Age", "Age of Athens", or "Age of Pericles"  Classical Age o This is the time period where we start to see Parthenon being built o Greek plays—tragedies start to emerge o Athenian democracy reaches its full height  A lot of people are participating/ serving at this time o Abolished property requirements for office holder o Assembly becomes a central/main power  Paid people to serve on juries  Juries chosen by lot; majority vote & the people couldn't appeal o Women are still excluded (slaves & foreigners as well) from democracy  Did not have same freedoms as Spartan women  : more housebound, discouraged from meeting in public, job was to raise the children, father chose their daughter's husbands, if no male heir existed, the daughter would inherit the land and had to marry the father's closet relative  Peloponnesian War (400 B.C) o On & off between Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues  Greek historian at this time: Thucydides (lived in 5 century Athens) o Strategies of: Athens: navy vs. Sparta: army o Pericles sends navy & destroyed the Peloponnesus coast  Sparta attacks Attica; this war was not definitive o Pericles of Athens believed they had to outlast Sparta & Sparta would run out of money & energy  Let's countryside people come inside walls  Plague hits Athens in 430 B.C and kills one-third of the population including Pericles o Everytime these two fought, it weakened Greece o In 404 B.C Athens loses/surrenders; becomes subject-state to Sparta o Sparta controls Greek world for a little while  Oligarchy is the form of government under Sparta's reign  Not powerful enough nor encompassing enough to be in charge  Could not handle the job of being in charge  Paves the way for another city-state to take over, Thebes  Constant fighting in 350's B.C o Meanwhile, in Macedonia, Philip is developing a professional army; becoming more and more powerful  Conquers all of Greece except Sparta  Sparta had a huge influence on famous leaders later in history: Hitler, Thomas Jefferson, and Mussolini th {Thursday, September 29 , 2016} th  Classical Greek Culture (5 century) o History and the study of it was created by Greeks  Herodotus: father of history  "history" comes from Greek word Historia, which means research/investigation  Travelled a lot, interviewed people (which is classified as oral history), talked about Egypt a lot o Thucydides (lived in 5 century)  Concerned with being accurate and objective, opposed to Herodotus  Believed history will always repeat itself  Greek Drama o Famous for outside theaters, such as, Dionysus Theater in Athens o Created drama o First Greek tragedian: Aeschylus, participated in Battle of Marathon, fought in the Battle of Salamis (wrote about it in play "The Persians")  It is said that, in Greek drama, he introduced the SECOND actor  Credited with being the FATHER OF TRAGEDY o Another Greek tragedian: Sophocles- added a THIRD actor  Famous for "Oedipus Rex" o A 3 Greek tragedian: Euripides—skeptic; questioned everything  The traditional view of war was that war could be glorious, heroic and could bring honor. On the other hand, Euripides portrayed war as being brutal  Sympathized w/ the women and children: wrote "Trojan women", and "Phoenician Women" o Aristophanes was a comedic playwright of Ancient Athens  Wrote "Lysistrata": which focused on women of Greece who try to end a war by refusing favors to their husbands until a truce was signed during the Peloponnesian War. (It worked!)  Architecture o 3 types of columns  Doric: very plain  Ionic: scrolls at the top  Corinthian: very fancy o Greeks did not build for height like the Egyptians; they built horizontally  Greek Philosophy o Philosophy: Greek word which means "love of wisdom"  Greek philosophers wanted to develop a rational thought about the universe  One of the basic questions: "What is the composition of the universe?" o Thales: Ionian Greek who hypothesized that water was the basic ingredient of the universe  This hypothesis provided the "logical reasoning" for Earthquakes (they then believed the Earth floated on water)  He is known as the 1 formal Greek scientist/mathematician/philosopher  Ends up falling into a well, and a passing peasant fishes him out  Others challenged his theory: adding all 4 of the elements into his hypothesis o Democritus: develops atomic theory that all physical things were made up of tiny combinations called atoms  He couldn’t prove it  He believed atoms were infinite in number, and were in constant motion o Parmenides: hypothesized that matter was unchanging and permanent o Heraclitus: hypothesized that the universe was in constant motion  "A man could not step into the same river twice" -Heraclitus o Sophists: a group that emerges in 5 century Athens  They looked into human behavior  Sold their knowledge; basically paid to teach  Taught physics, astronomy, math and music o Protagoras: Greek philosopher who lived in Athens; skeptic  He insisted that truth was different for each person. Therefore, he believed there was NO ABSOLUTE TRUTH.  He was also an agnostic o Athenians felt Sophists were corrupting the youth, and threatening the laws and the morality of Greece  The Sophists did not encourage the people to cause chaos because they did believe in social order... "When in Athens, do as the Athenians do"  Socrates o NOT A SOPHIST o Does not get paid for his teaching o Questions everything o Contemptuous of democracy o Debated everyone he walked up to o Brought to trial in 399 B.C., he was 70 years old  Charged with disrespecting the Gods & corrupting the youth of Athens  Condemned to death; committed suicide by drinking hemlock: which was a popular poison at the time  Plato o Socrates' student o Focused on "HOW do we know what's real?" o Wrote about Socrates; that’s how we have information on Socrates  Claimed that Socrates faced death happily because Socrates believed that death released your soul and the truth would then come to you {Tuesday, October 4 , 2016}  Plato (cont.) o Grew up in Athens during the time of the Peloponnesian War o Set up a school in Athens, known as The Academy in 387 B.C.  Taught math, philosophy, law, science... o Plato's philosophies: believed that perfection existed, and perfect ideas existed on a higher plane  Believed that our senses are perceptions, or copies, or what is perfect  Ex: fire on a cave wall  Also believed that our perceptions are imperfect reflections and that the physical world could be different for different people o Wrote "The Republic": which talks about what his ideal society would be like (utopia) o He felt that government was not meant to make individuals happy but the collective as a whole  Also felt that the government should focus on order o Believed in censorship o He was contemptuous of democracy o Admired Sparta o Believed children should be placed in a community nursery o Felt that society should be organized:  1. Top "class": Philosopher kings/rulers: these rulers were trained in philosophy, would mate with each other to produce superior children, they should not possess any private property & should have no families (main focus was: learning and the community), women philosophers could also rule  2. Middle "class": soldiers/warriors: felt these soldiers were very important to the city-state  3. "Bottom" class (majority of the people resided in this class): workers: artisans, farmers, tradesmen, and the producers would be assigned their trade to make sure everyone produced what was needed  Aristotle o Studied at The Academy for about 20 years o Plato's student o Eventually set up his own school, "The Lyceum" o He was all about research/investigation/examination o Did not believe in Plato's "perfection in a higher plane" hypothesis o Wrote "Politics" after examining different governments. After examining these governments, he comes to the conclusion that no "utopia" exists o He believed that the focus of government should be the good of the state and not own interests. o He believed that the following 3 forms of good government would work:  1. Rule by monarch (king): but the people had to be careful that it did not turn into tyranny  2. Rule by few/ aristocracy: had to be careful it did not turn into an oligarchy  3. Rule by many/ constitutional government (this was his favorite): had to be careful it did not turn into an anarchy/radical democracy o He was all about moderation, and he believed nothing should be in excess and extremity should be avoided o He was a big fan of middle class because they knew how to command & obey o He believed in having a balanced life  He was appointed by Philip of Macedonia to tutor Alexander the Great  He was forced to flee Athens b/c of his ties to Macedonia (around 323 B.C) o Chose to flee so that Athenians might not "twice-sin" against philosophy by killing him as they did with Socrates o Died the next year  Greek Science & Medicine (did not have a lot of progress during this time) o Pythagoreans: named after their leader, Pythagoras  They studied math & came up with the Pythagorean Theorem  Felt that the order of the universe was based on numbers  Classified numbers as being odd, even, or prime o Biology  Anaximander, pupil of Thales  Came up with the crude theory of evolution o : all ancestral animals lived in the sea and when the sea receded some sea animals adjusted to being on land & evolved into man  On the other hand, Aristotle came up with the idea of spontaneous generation o Medicine  Empedocles: supported the idea that the universe was made up of the 4 elements  He also believed that blood flowed to and from the heart  Also believed that the skin was important for respiration o Hippocrates: regarded as the FATHER OF MEDICINE  This is where the Hippocratic Oath for doctors came from, which means "to do no harm"  Hippocrates believed that there was a reason for every illness  He also believed in the 4 bodily humors in which the body was made of:  1. Yellow Bile  2. Black Bile  3. Blood  4. Phlegm  (If you were sick, they would bleed you with LEECHES! Can you imagine?)  Greek Religion (This is my FAVORITE topic besides Greek Art & Architecture!) o Involved MANY Gods and Goddesses o These Gods/ Goddesses had human characteristics/traits  Humans could bargain with them  They were immortal o Greek people had a lot of festivals and sacrifices to honor the Gods/Goddesses o These Gods/Goddesses resided on Mount Olympus  They had mixed babies with humans, called demigods  Demigod means: Half-mortal, half-God o People did not pray to/address the Gods/Goddesses for faith; they prayed for good crops and good weather o Gods would fight against each other a lot, but they were immortal so they could not die Any questions or comments? Email me @ I respond fairly quickly or you can just ask me before or after class, your choice! I hope my notes are helping you guys out! Look for the next set of notes to be up soon, as well as a study guide! You guys are gonna ace this test, I believe in you!


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